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- Power Generation - Engines
- Gearbox
- Suspension
- Brakes
- Tyres
- Planform

- Double de-clutching #
- Into neutral at the torque neutral point #

- "Hold my beer and watch this"


- The Psychology of Observers #
- The Psychology of other Road Users #
- Functionaries;
-- Cops-Functionaries-Ordinary people
-- High Risk
--- Entering automobile events or major sporting events


- WD40 #



- Instrumentation and cognition #

- Instrumentation and Tradition #






- The Basic Equation #

- - Engines breath air. The more air they breath in the more fuel you can burn, the more power you can generate. Air pressure at sea level is roughly fifteen and half pounds per square inch. That means that if you create a vacuum in a closed vessel, and then open the lid, a pressure of fifteen and a half pounds per square inch will force air inside. That is all the pressure there is and if you want to fill the vessel with more air at a faster speed, you need to provide some pressure yourself, with a compressor. Naturally aspirated engines breath in air because they create a vacuum on the downstroke of the piston and the natural air pressure pushes the air inside to fill that vacuum. All you ever get is fifteen and a half pounds per square inch. You can increase the quantity of air inducted if you pressurise it. If you push the the air in using a compressor, a supercharger.

The Limits: If you place your finger over the end of a bicycle pump and push the plunger you will feel the air escape past your finger. The air will feel warm because it is being compressed. The more you compress the air, the hotter it will get. If you mix vaporised fuel in with the air, then compress it, at a certain compression, at a certain temperature, it will ignite. The mixture will burn and expand. In internal combustion engines this is not a useful feature because it will ignite at the wrong time, it will ignite prematurely. We require the ignition of the mixture at exactly the right time, the time of our choosing. The piston needs to be poised at just the right place to make maximum advantage of the push from the burning and expanding mixture. We choose the point of ignition of the mixture using a spark plug. The fact that you can only compress a flammable mixture so much before it ignites means that we have to stay below that level of compression. The level of compression is about 12:1. If we exceed 12:1 and choose 15:1 the mixture will ignite as soon as it reaches 12:1, which will be while the piston is on the way up the cylinder. The piston will be pushed back down the cylinder and the engine will reverse. If you supercharge the engine, then the overall increase in pressure caused by the combined effort of the upward moving piston and the rotating supercharger must be kept to the same 12:1. If you exceed this, exactly the same thing happens. This means that supercharged engines have to have a lower compression ratio in the cylinder because the air they received is already compressed to some extent. If you use an inter-cooler and cool the intake charge after it has left the supercharger, then you 'start afresh'. If you cool the compressed air back to room temperature, after the supercharger, then you can start with a clean slate and compress it the full 12:1 ratio within the cylinder. This means that you will be not only filling the cylinder with a lot more air but you will be enjoying the benefits of the full 12:1 compression ratio within the cylinder.

Road-going passenger cars have compression ratios somewhere between 9:1 and 12.5:1 . That is as much as modern pump gasoline will support. In the late 1960s you could still purchase 104 octane gasoline (leaded) at the pumps. Things went downhill rapidly in the oil crisis of the early 1970s in more ways than octane content. For racing on a race track where you take your own gasoline, you had a choice between purchasing drums of racing gasoline (F1) or using AvGas (Aviation Gasoline), the top grade of which was 115/145 octane (high lead ) , which had been developed during WWII. Aviation gasoline and racing gasoline have the advantage of being one consistent blend, which helps when you are tuning racing engines. Distillers of pump gasoline vary the 'cut' or blend of pump gasoline depending on the season, winter-summer, because a lighter cut is required for engines in winter. If you are building a road car, then it is going to running pump gasoline. Some drag racing cars which race on the street use a second gasoline tank which is filled with Aviation gasoline. The engine runs on pump gasoline on the way to the race and they switch the feed to Aviation gasoline to go racing. You would have to adjust the fuel metering and the spark timing of the engine to take advantage of the Aviation gasoline and adjust it back again to drive home - unless you just baby the engine along and keep it cool.




- In Racing: Racing is governed by rules. Dating from between the wars, the rules have been designed to make the cars go more slowly. Thus, banning items which make the car go faster, such as supercharging, was a logical step forward. Studying the turbo-era in Formula 1 is a useful exercise in solving the engineering problems associated with supercharging.

- In road-going passenger cars: The 'supercharging era' in passenger cars came in during the 1990s when Mercedes-Benz wanted to increase the power output on their # small sports car but found that the engine bay was too small. They had to find a way of increasing the power or they would have to design the whole car again. Higher levels of disposable income in their customers meant that people could at last afford more powerful cars, even in Europe where gasoline prices are astronomical compared to the United States, thanks to the quantity of tax imposed on fuel by governments. The design and construction of engines is so expensive that only the large and medium size constructors can afford to undertake it. This means that if they have a sudden requirement for a much larger power output, then it can be met by supercharging existing engines rather then undergoing the financial pain of developing a new engine from scratch, which has become steadily more expensive since the advent of the EPA in the 1970s and the EU in the 1980s. A pox upon both their houses. The second issue which supercharging addresses is the space in the engine bay. Detroit built V8s of the 1960s had already reached the maximum width which would fit inside a passenger car engine bay. The Chrysler Hemi and the even larger Ford BOSS 385 series (BOSS 429, BOSS 494 and the 460) were both examples of this. When the BOSS 429 engine was fitted to the Mustang in 1969, the shock absorber towers had to be moved outboard to allow the engine to squeeze in. These engines approach 500ci / # 8.2 liters in capacity. A smaller engine, supercharged would give the designers breathing space in the engine bay. Usually the supercharger is mounted in the valley of a 'V' engine which means the engine is taller when fitted with a supercharger, but not as wide as a naturally aspirated 'V' engine of the same power output.#

- As a rough guide, in practical terms you can double the output the normally aspirated engine by supercharging it. On pump gas , a 500ci normally aspirated engine will give you 500HP without robbing Peter to pay Paul on the power band. A supercharged 500ci engine will give you 1000HP.

- You can make the engine generate a higher peak power by optimising the camming and the intake/exhaust tract resonance to generate power in the higher RPM band or in the band just before the red line. The engine will not produce as much power further down the RPM range which will make it more 'peaky' in terms of its power delivery. This may make the car slower because it has to generate torque from the RPM it joins the lower gear at until it reaches the next higher gear. The way around this is to add more gears to the gearbox. This is why most two-stroke engines, which are very peaky and have such a narrow power-band, have so many gears in their gearbox. This is why engines which produced a high torque like Porsche's 12 cylinder engines and 16 cylinder engines which went into their 917 race cars, had only a four speed gearbox.

- In a peaky engine you will have to change gear often while you drive the car hard around the track. If you are on the public road your will not have the throttle-open torque which you require to overtake other vehicles and will have to stir the gearbox to put the engine in its power-band rather than just stand on the throttle. In road driving on public roads, not only will you have to open and close the throttle for corners but also for overtaking. This is where throttle-open torque would be a useful characteristic.






TURBOCHARGER VERSUS N/A OR SUPERCHARGED - Driving through the Alps is like skiing in that you are not traveling from A to B. You leave A and your return to A that evening. You ski in order to express your self, to 'feel the force', to control the interaction of the mountain, of gravity and of your body, much like dancing. It is the same with driving. This means that the driving experience is paramount. Getting back to base faster, but with less satisfaction, will be less pleasurable. This means that the car must handle well and respond well, as pure extension of your body and of your will. This means that turbo-charged engines with their inherent lag and volatile power delivery are much less instrumental as an extension of your will than a normal aspirated or a supercharged engine. This means that in road cars, cars not designed for competition, turbo-charged cars are less suitable and offer less satisfaction. Once you are racing, the the car with the fastest lap-times wins, regardless of how it achieves those lap times.








- Quote Carroll Smith: Torque wins races. Horsepower sells cars.

- It is the same with manufacturers figures for rifles and cartridges. They quote energy 1/2MV[#squared] when it fact terminal effect is best measured using ordinary momentum M*V.











- On the road: The road is essentially a long racetrack. Very long. The straights are long and the corners few. The other road users which you must overtake add a straight-line stop-start drag race. Furthermore, when overtaking, it is instantaneous torque: That torque available when the throttle is opened, which is more important than how much torque the engine can develop. This means that turbo-charged engines and to an extent normally aspirated engines which are tuned for peak power over a narrow RPM band, are inferior for road driving (or racing on the road) to engines which offer high instantaneous torque.#

- Racetrack short - Racetrack long - Road

Open-wheel racecars (Formula 1) being the lightest design are the optimum for short tight race-tracks. A light racecar corners faster than a heavy racecar QUOTE CARROLL SMITH#. A large engine with the throttle closed is an anvil. The car which carries the smallest anvil around the corner will be the fastest racecar.

Full-bodied race-cars (Le Mans) are the fastest on long tracks because they have a lower drag at higher speeds.

Full-bodied racecars with high-torque engines are the fastest for road driving because in road driving, the road is the equivalent of a long track, very long, and the car will reach high speeds in between over-taking other cars.


On a road course which had all corners, like an Alpine hill-climb, then a car optimised for cornering (light, open-wheel) would be the optimum car. The Jochpass hillclimb at Sonthofen in the # Allgau is a prime example of this. The Jochpass is all corners. There are no straights, even on a motorcycle. An narrow open-wheel (light) car would be optimum for this section of road course. The race-prepared FIAT 500 with their tiny thimble race slicks do well on this hill-climb. Because the course is all corners, your engine never runs at wide-open-throttle. The FIAT 500 do run at wide-open-throttle, which means they are carrying no more engine than they need to.

In practice, narrow roads like mountain or coastal roads limit car width if you are to drive at speed. Other than Monaco, I cannot think of any narrow race-tracks.





- Race: Engine is disassembled after every race and inspected. The gasket material needs to be able to survive disassembly/reassembly and thus copper gaskets or copper rings are used. Copper does not seal well when the engine is cold but the engine is not run cold.

- Road: Needs to last somewhere between a year and 30,000 miles.

- Road: Factory built Passenger Car: Engine must remain in service without disassembly for 100,000 miles. Gasket must seal well in all conditions. # Gasket material is usually # metal laminate. Some gasket materials are sticky and difficult to remove which would cause problems in a racecar engine which is disassembled after every race.

Racecar engines and transmission are disassembled after every race which means that materials or designs which have short lives can be used in a racecar which could not be used in a road passenger car. The development of the carbon fiber gearbox, for example, where the carbon fiber housing and the titanium fittings had a fatigue life of half a season.





- Many car enthusiasts are surprised by what paper performance figures translate to on the road. (1) The figures are driver-dependent. If you are not a good driver the numbers are slower. (2) The actual physical distance on the road, be it in the quarter mile or in lap times is much less than the brain thinks it is as a result of reading the figures on the paper.

- Psychologically, a new owner of a performance car who is not a good driver is surprised when he has to work at driving the car to achieve or even approach the figures. Surprised that mere possession of the car does not deliver to him those figures. Even more surprised when he is followed or passed by slower cars which are driven by better drivers.



- Adding width to the track of the car enables the car to corner at a higher g-force. Normally race regulations specify a maximum width of the car. Race cars can approach the width of a truck #. On the road, a car the width of a truck is fine on the Autobahn but on two-lane-blacktop, the wider the car, the more you have to pull-out to over-take. And you certainly cannot over-take down the middle or the road like you can in the smallest cars. On narrower roads than the national routes (US highway, Route Nationale, A-roads) then a car the width of a truck has to travel at the same speed as a truck if the road is not wide enough to accommodate two vehicles passing each other. The wide car might have to stop at any moment. Thus the design of a road car with respect to width becomes a struggle between two objectives. A car which spends a lot of its time on the Autoroute will benefit from the maximum width permissible but the car which spends more of its time on Alpine passes will benefit from a much narrower width. Otherwise, you find yourself proceeding at walking pace, so that you can stop the car in a few car-lengths and then negotiate past the other vehicle, or start reversing to a passing place.


On a road car, length gives the same restriction as width. While on the Autoroute, it is not an inconvenience. When over-taking on two-lane-blacktop, you have to spend longer over-taking the car in front, because of the length of your car. You cannot just duck in and out like a motorcycle or a small rally car. This means that on some cross-country routes, a small rally car, particularly if Gruppe B, will be faster than car which has a width and length which is more suited to the track or to the Autoroute.





- One of the problems which you do not encounter on a race track is restrictions on width. On the road, if you are on a motorcycle you can overtake down the middle of the road between vehicles. In a narrow car, which is also short in length, you can easily overtake a vehicle in front because you do not have to pull out very far and you do not have to remain for a long distance on the other side of the road in order to pull the full length of your vehicle past the car being overtaken. Hence on a long cross-country route over two-lane blacktop, a fast car that is both narrow and short, like a hatch-back will be quite a bit faster than a fast car which is wide and long. Examples of fast hatch-backs include the Gruppe B rally cars of the 1980s such as the Puegeot 205 and the Renault 5 or cars such as the Mini Cooper. If you have ever tried to make fast cross-country times on road conditions like these in cars such as a Ferrari Testarossa (# WIDTH), 512TR (# WIDTH)or any of the Lamborghinis later than the Diablo (# WIDTH), you will know what I mean. The later versions of the track car the Porsche 917/30 were (# WIDTH) two meters wide. That is fine on a track on on the Autobahn.

- Worse still are second class roads were the full width of the road is less than the width of your car and an oncoming passenger car combined. Driving one of the above mentioned cars down these roads becomes like driving a truck where you have to proceed cautiously in a low gear in order to be able to stop the moment an oncoming vehicle comes into view. One of the aforementioned Gruppe B rally cars would be much faster because they are narrow enough to pass another vehicle without having to put two wheels up the bank.




- WEIGHT; The lighter a race car is, the faster it will go in the corners. The lighter a road car is, the less luxurious and more uncomfortable it will be.



Engine: Copper gasket / copper rings
Engine: Expanded metal gasket
Engine: Connecting Rod: welded oil pipe
Engine: Connecting Rod: drilled oil pipe
Gearbox: Carbon fiber + titanium bosses
Gearbox: Aluminum/titanium
Gearbox: dog
Gearbox: Synchromesh



RACE ROAD ##### #####
Engine: high piston crown above top ring to strengthen piston top at high temperatures
Engine: low piston crown above top ring to reduce unburned gas trap
Engine: Wrist pin center in piston center to reduce skirt friction
Engine: Offset wrist pin center in order to wedge piston within bore and reduce piston slap noise
Engine: Straight cut gears on cam and accessory drives for low drag but high noise
Engine: Helical gears to reduce noise or other method: Belt drive, serpentine drive
Gearbox: Spur gears: Straight cut to reduce friction but increase noise
Gearbox: Spur gears: Helical or double helical to reduce noise but increase friction and helical require thrust bearing



Ground clearance:
Only 2cm ground clearance
Hits potholes, driveways. Unable to ascend speed-ramps
Clears potholes, driveway ramps, ascends speed-ramps.
Side clearance / Overhang:
Nil. Edge clearance same as ground clearance.
Will strike driveway ramps.
Overhang must clear kerbs when parking.





-- Cockpit noise may be comfortable for short periods, but after a 12 hour or 24 hour drive even the noise level transmitted by a factory sports car interior (1970s era) will leave you the next day with a strong roaring in your ears. This may be bearable to to the driver but female passengers will not by happy about it. While your Saturday-night-special in which you have removed all the interior insulation and fitted a straight-through exhaust system may be amusing for a couple of hours stop-light racing on Mulholland Drive or Van Nuys Boulevard, an over-night drive from Stuttgart to Cannes is going to by physically wearing for your lady passenger.


Straight-cut gears in gearbox
Helical-cut or double-helical cut gears in gearbox
Straight-cut gears in final-drive
Helical-cut gears in final drive
Straight-cut gears driving camshaft
Chain drive to camshafts
Straight-cut gears to accessory drives
Rubber V-belt or serpentine Kevlar toothed belt drive to accesories
Bare chassis
Noise dampening rockwool backing behind interior panels
Straight-through exhaust system
Silencer equipped exhaust system
Mechanical pushrod lifters rather than hydraulic self-adjusting pushrod lifters
Cam followers, tappets and other valve-actuation devices designed for low noise
Wind noise from exterior fittings - wing mirrors - windshield wipers






- # ADD OPERATIONAL RISK CHART ending in "Hold My Beer and Watch This" #

- High Risk: Entrance to car shows and concours events, upscale public events




- People coming up along side = Revueing the fleet. But remember that when the social voltage is high







- - When accelerating into traffic down the on-ramp of a six-lane divided highway, accelerate at full throttle into the draft of the automobile in the first lane, then into the draft of the automobile of the second lane thence into the draft of the automobile in the third lane. You can do this without having to use your mirrors, because you accelerating through the braking distance of the automobile following the car in whose draft you are.



- Drag-racing cars are optimised for acceleration and circuit racing cars are not. Most people who purchase their first car rightly imagine that a more powerful engine will make it accelerate faster. This is true for the first degrees of increase. Off-the-line acceleration in a drag-car is defined by traction and traction is a function of the design of the suspension and its tuning. For traction, the entire weight of the automobile must rear-up off its front wheels and stand on its back wheels. Now, all the weight of the auto is on the drive wheels. 100%. As if it had 4x4. For this, a long-travel soft-sprung suspension is necessary. This is the opposite of a suspension which goes around corners. Now with the car launching thanks to plenty of traction, the torque of the engine plays the next most important role. All of that traction may be exploited with plenty of torque from the engine. All goes well until we reach 60mph and the drag from the air starts to increase. There is worse news as we cross through 120mph because the drag is not only twice as great but more than three times as great. The drag increases at a square or the speed. Over 200mph and the drag is starting to become serious. With present technology it becomes difficult to generate enough torque to overcome it and the auto may stop accelerating. In a vacuum it would accelerate forever. In order to go faster, we have to reduce drag because trying to go faster by generating more horsepower becomes impractical. However, reducing the drag of the bodywork of the car produces big gains in speed because each time the drag is reduced, the reduction falls away down the steep curve quite some distance. Over 200mph, you can make much bigger gains in top speed by reducing drag. In fact it is the only measure worth taking.

- Thus the three stages of automobile design for acceleration are evident: Suspension, engine, and streamlining.




+ Death of the Big-Block .... and other ill omens


The news that a salvage vessel had recovered from the abyssal sea-bed several of the F1 rocket engines which powered the Saturn V first stage inspired powerful and conflicting feelings within me.

1) Marine salvage is a hobby I have always aspired to but you need to have the disposable income of a billionaire to indulge it. Also, you end up with lots of large rusty bits of metal, which, unless you live in somewhere the size of Versailles, are going to end up clogging up your house.

I was mildly irritated that some one had 'beaten me to it'. They have already found the missing Mercury capsule.

The moonshots were the peak of civilization's achievement. Real men, with crew-cuts, in action. The Right Stuff. Von Braun's booster hefted the weight of a Navy destroyer into orbit. Straight up. Beat that.

It wasn't 'digital' it wasn't 'macrobiotic' it wasn't 'environmentally friendly' and it certainly wasn't 'sustainable'.

That peak, as those rocket exhausts burned and crackled into the sky seemed like the culmination, the destiny of the forces of design, of science, of engineering. That flowering which hit high gear with the breaking of the sound barrier, carried through to the Century Series aircraft, the SR-71, the B-70 and finally the Saturn V.

In reality the cancer which would be the death of us was already gnawing at the bones from within.

Those Apollo launches were more than just a Herculanean thrust of civilization's spear. They were a communion, an act of worship. The very debris of which, ever spec of dust, was Holy. Semi-devine, in the way that all power over metals has always been. From that first bright liquid glow of the crucible, onwards.

Frankly, I wish they had left the engines there on the sea-bed. That way, when extra-terrestrials visit the remains of our dead planet and find them, they can measure to the yard how far civilization launched itself, then fell back. "Ozymandias".

The F1 engines were an incredible feat of engineering. Design by design and not by evolutionary empiricism is always nerve-racking. But the race was on and the clock was running. You can start to appreciate the problems when you examine the fuel pumps' design alone. In fact the engine is the fuel pumps. Liquid gases have to be pumped in gigantic quantities into a crucible which is on the verge of melting point and which must transmit several hundred tons of pressure.

As those engines started and ran to speed the astronauts reported that the vibration up in the command module was so severe they could not see the gauges.


But.... the F1 was just the "Small Block". With the prospect of things getting serious and the full seriousness of the cancer within civilization, the cancer which would prevent it achieving escape velocity, the prototype of the "Big Block" was already under construction.




Here it is folks: The real thing and even realer than it was the first time around. Factory muscle cars on original factory rubber in a head-to-head test with the same driver.

While I am a Ford guy right through to the marrow in my bones, the figure which defined the Sixties was not Ursula Andress, Raquel Welch, or Anita Ekberg but the 13.1 seconds it took the 1969 Dodge Charger Hemi to cover the quarter mile.

The Shelby Cobra 427 (FE block the side oiler) ran about 12.6 seconds in the quarter. The S/C may have been a little faster. But this is not a Detroit car, and never really figured in the horsepower wars because of that. Strange to think now the the Shelby Cobra 427 S/C which Carroll made just would not sell and he had to drop the price.

With the incoming tide of anti-Civilization, things went wrong: The NASCAR shootout between the Hemi and Ford's BOSS 429 never happened. The Ford SOHC had already been banned.

While the BOSS 429, King of Mustangs, King of Muscle Cars, was quick, the Torque-flight equipped Dodge Charger with the Hemi was ever so slightly quicker. At least when it was measured. All the BOSS Mustangs had the manual four-speed, which are great for muscle cars but are always going to be at a disadvantage in the quarter compared to the torque converter transmission cars and the more power you deliver the more apparant that disadvantage becomes.

In the test the BOSS 429 delivers a respectable 13.9 seconds ET for the quarter mile. It would have been interesting to see it run against the Dodge Charger with the Hemi.

Apparently, a '1969' Dodge Charger is an 'old ride'.

In Aerospace the late 1950s and 1960s had given us the Century series fighters. A pack of fast, powerful, slick and good-lookin. It was as though there was "something in the air".

Then came the 1970s. They were a disaster. The EPA ruined engine-building, with EGR pumps, low-octane gas. The Jap multis wiped out the motorcycle market over-night like a giant Permian extinction.

The 1973 oil crisis was the end. The conflagration which resulted from the nose-dive.

Only Gunsite stood alone.

The 1980s were as dry as the 1970s. The fashions were not quite as catastrophic but it was a desert. The 1990s gave no sign that there would be any improvement and nor did I expect one. Here and there, there were little throw-backs. An attempt to stem the tide. The Dodge Viper was one. I have tried to think of others.


If they had chosen to use the V8 Hemi they would have built a car which was of world-shaking importance, which droves of Hemi and Charger fans flocked to worship. But because they chose the weirdo V10 layout, they failed to access that market, even with a substantial level of cubic inches. One of the biggest missed opportunities in automotive history. It would have been Dodge's Viper to Ford's Cobra.


Perhaps it started with a star rising in the east. A three-pointed star. Mercedes-Benz started to use its big V12 and V8s from the Le Mans program. They don't do things by halves and their fast saloons are the fastest in the world. Then BMW and Audi started producing big powerful V8, V10 and V12 engines.

But I was certain that the good times would never be back. It was over forever. It was going to be a long time dying. Heck there are still people building flat-head Fords. But when our generation died and it's idols with it, there would nothing except what was in the history books.

All of the muscle cars were just shadows of their former selves.

But then it came. Slowly at first.

At first, I ignored it. It was like a twitch in the corpse which is days dead. A temporary aberration.

It started with things like the throw-back in the design of the Mustang to 1969/1970. It seemed to keep going from there. And it resulted in ..... the unheard of ... the undreampt of.... the barely imaginable .... 200mph Mustang: The Shelby GT500 Super Snake. Not a race car. Not a Hot Rod. But a turn-key daily driver. You could buy one and drive it straight off the dealer's lot.

Maybe ... just Maybe ...we're not done for yet.



Then, there seemed to be even more:

No wait ... there is a.... a... Chevrolet LS7 under the hood ! God's Eye and Jawbone ! The Devil's seed did interject at the moment of conception, and his brood resulteth !! Outrage ! - I'd rather walk.

I have seen some evil in my time, but nothing quite as evil as this.


Thompson on how to handle being stopped for speeding by the cops:

   About five miles back I had a brush with the CHP Wikipedia - . Not stopped or pulled over: nothing routine. I always drive properly. A bit fast, perhaps, but always with consummate skill and a natural feel for the road that even cops recognize. No cop was ever born who isn’t a sucker for a finely - executed hi-speed Controlled Drift all the way around one of those cloverleaf freeway interchanges.
   Few people understand the psychology of dealing with a highway traffic cop. Your normal speeder will panic and immediately pull over to the side when he sees the big red light behind him . . . and then we will start apologizing, begging for mercy.
   This is wrong. It arouses contempt in the cop-heart. The thing to do - when you’re running along about a hundred or so and you suddenly find a red - flashing CHP - tracker on your trail - what you want to do then is accelerate. Never pull over with the first siren - howl. Mash it down and make the bastard chase you at speeds up to 120 all the way to the next exit. He will follow. But he won’t know what to make of your blinker-signal that says you’re about to turn right.
   This is to let him know you’re looking for a proper place to pull off and talk . .. keep signaling and hope for an off-ramp, one of those uphill side-loops with a sign saying “Max Speed 25” . . . and the trick, at this point, is to suddenly leave the freeway and take him into the chute at no less than a hundred miles an hour.
   He will lock his brakes about the same time you lock yours, but it will take him a moment to realize that he’s about to make a 180-degree turn at this speed . .. but you will be ready for it, braced for the Gs and the fast heel - toe work, and with any luck at all you will have come to a complete stop off the road at the top of the turn and be standing beside your automobile by the time he catches up.
   He will not be reasonable at first . . . but no matter. Let him calm down. He will want the first word. Let him have it. His brain will be in a turmoil: he may begin jabbering, or even pull his gun. Let him unwind; keep smiling. The idea is to show him that you were always in total control of yourself and your vehicle - while he lost control of everything.

Gumball Rally -
From Gumball Rally (1976)




© copyright copyright ©


Zeichen: Caution: Illegal Street Racing taking place
Caution: Illegal Street Racing











A Ä B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Ö P Q R S ß T U Ü V W X Y Z



A - Anton




- When a car accelerates the weight starts to transfer to the rear of the car. The more it accelerates the more weight transfers. Eventually all of the weight transfers and the car or more usually motorcycle pulls its front wheels into the air. Once the front wheels are in the air, 100% of the weight of the car is resting on the rear wheels. All of the weight and all of the drive is through the rear wheels. This is ideal from the point of view of acceleration. The tire tread is being pressed against the asphalt as firmly as is possible. To aid in weight transfer, the suspension is both soft and has a long travel. This will cause the car to squat as it accelerates. Shock absorber settings at the front are set to allow upward travel but to deny downward travel. This keeps the front of the car tipped up toward the rear of the car. The suspension settings with soft springs and a long travel mean that the car would be slow in cornering. The body would roll a lot. Racing slicks for drag cars are the softest stickiest compound available. The tread on the drag slick is thin so that it will deform under load and flatten against the road. This produces a huge tread contact area of sticky rubber. The sidewalls are soft and compliant so that they do not resist the flattening of the tread on the portion of the tire in contact with the ground. These features mean that the car would be slow in cornering because the whole tire would deform and tread would bend away from the tire as the car was thrown toward the outside of the corner. The car would feel very unstable. Circuit track racing cars such as Formula 1 and Le Mans have suspensions and tires which are designed to optimise cornering speed. There is nearly no travel in the suspension and the springs are as stiff as possible. The tire wall is stiff in order to transfer their cornering force to the wheel. Tread thickness on racing slicks is less than on road going passenger car tires so the contact patch is also larger. The result of suspension and tire design being optimised for cornering means that the circuit racing car has, relative to a drag racing car, relatively little traction to offer when accelerating. The hard suspension with little travel means that the car cannot transfer a lot of weight to its rear wheels. Much of its weight will remain on its front un-driven wheels. The same goes for road-going sports cars.

- Road Going Sports Cars

- In road going sports cars the effects of the stiff suspension set for high cornering forces can be overcome be using a four-wheel-drive transmission system which will allow use of what traction the front wheels have available to them. Examples of these are the Audi Quattro S1, the Lamborghini Gallardo 4x4 and the Nissan Skyline GTR. The tires, being circuit racing tires will not offer the huge contact patch of a drag racing slick so the drag racing car will always be able to exploit this advantage. The contact patch of the drag racing slick is much larger than the combined contact patch of both front and rear tires of a circuit racing tire. This means that even a car with four-wheel-drive, when fitted with circuit racing tires, will only be able to generate so much grip and no matter how much power is generated, it will be able to apply no more of it than the quantity of grip will permit. #

- IN THEORY: It is possible to design a testbed which had suspension which would configure itself in terms of spring softness and travel but it would always be heavier than suspension optimised for just one task. In circuit racing this would mean that the car would be un-competitive.



- American Graffiti (1973)



+ APPAREL ; Boots ; Clothing ; Goggles ; Helmets ;

- Link - Classicdriver - Chapal vintage race wear Chapal

- Historic Race Wear




+ AN ;

- AN is an acronym which is an abbreviation of 'Air Corps/Navy'.



- Armed Vehicle Operations Link - Armed Vehicle Operations

- Auspuffhorn




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Ä - Ärger





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B - Bertha



+ BIG-BLOCK; Death of the Big-Block ;

I suppose one day they will only be visible in the Smithsonian. Perhaps it does not seem like much but it signals the end of an era. That the times ... they are a-changing.

There will be worse to come.



- Bizzarrini 5300GT



- The Bonn Diplomatic Drivers Club Link - Bonn Diplomatic Drivers Club




- BOOTS ; MOTORCYCLE BOOTS ;Wikipedia - Motorcycle Boots

-- France is blessed with long sections of unasphalted roads which snake through the mountains and forests. In the late 1970s / early 1980s this produced a breed of off-road motorcycle with a large V-twin engine and a rider who wore classic Moto-Cross boots, like the Axo Link - Vintage Motorcycle Boots - Motocross . This style crossed-over onto the roads and sports bike riders who were riding race replicas while wearing full race leathers would wear Moto-Cross boots with the full race leathers. Not the modern ones with the molded soles but the old style black leather like the Axo Norstar Trans-Am, with the full welted sole and the leather straps over the shin-guard.

-- Axo Link - Axo Boots NorStar Trans-Am Boots Link - Axo NorStar Trans-Am Link - Axo NorStar Trans-Am boots

Axo used to run an ad campaign for their boots in motorcycle magazines showing the boot stepping off the peg onto the ground with just the multi-lingual caption "Axo: Mucho Macho"




Grand Prix (1966)
1960s racing boots, From Grand Prix (1966)

Grand Prix (1966)



- Borrani Wikipedia - Borrani ; Manufacturer of wire wheels

Route Borrani Milano







- Race brake pads tend to have very little 'feel' to them and do not grip the disc until the pads become hot or at least warm. This means that for fine braking under difficult conditions they are inferior to regular road compound pads. The same applies to carbon-carbon brakes: They do not grip until they become hot and they have little 'feel' to them even when hot.

- In any conditions where the brakes on a road-going passenger car become so hot that the smoke, fade and boil the brake fluid then obviously there would be a benefit in changing to higher temperature pads or carbon-carbon brakes. However, during high speed work on a long twisting road where the brakes become warm but not hot #(Route Napoleon), there is a benefit retaining brakes which have a very progressive feel, which enable you to brake as if it was your own bare feet touching the road. This is particularly important on twisting mountain roads where a mistake would be fatal.


- All components going into the automobile must be as light as possible but the components which are unsprung - the tires, wheels, brakes, springs, shock absorbers and suspension arms are doubly important. Not only do they count in the all-up weight of the vehicle but when the vehicle is driving down a road surface, the momentum of these parts means that when they descend into a pothole, their momentum must be overcome to accelerate them into the bottom of the pothole. On exit from the pothole, their momentum will carry them into the air, which means that the tread surface loses contact with the road surface. If you are driving around a long corner and the road surface undulates then the surface of the tread will remain in the air longer if they unsprung mass of the automobile is larger. This causes the car to float toward the outside of the bend, since it is, or our purposes, airborne and not in contact with the road. Thus when designing brakes it is important that the rotors, pads and calipers are just large enough to do the job but no larger.

- The development of tires with low sidewalls and thus wheels with a much larger diameter has had the benefit of enabling the fitting of larger brake rotors. These have been beneficial for heavy front-engined road cars which in the past have suffered from overheating brakes on both road and track. 1960s Corvettes had to resort to water spray cooling of the rotors in an attempt to stop them over-heating.

- Carbon-Carbon brakes solved all the problems with overheating brakes. Aircraft brakes are designed the same way as a multi-plate clutch, with alternate layers of disc and friction material. This design of brake will absorb and dissipate a lot of heat but adds yet more weight to the unsprung mass of the car. Braking an aircraft is a one-shot-deal in that it brakes to a standstill and by the time the brakes are very hot there is no airflow to channel to the brakes. The energy of the aircraft must be absorbed as heat within the mass of the brakes. It's not much fun being an aircraft brake. Similarly in trucks, the air flow, particularly when descending a mountain road, is low but the quantity of energy to absorb is high. Disc brakes, with their centrifugal flow of air through their core would not be an advantage and would offer a low area of brake pad in comparison to the size of drum brake which may be fitted inside a truck double wheel. In this application drum brakes, offer best advantage.



- ROAD CAR BRAKE PADS - Cars which race around a track have their brakes become very hot. They benefit from brakes which do not fade and which have a working range which is on the higher temperatures. They do not need to concern themselves with the fact that these brake pads usually require warming up to temperature because they are warmed up on the warm-up lap. In a road car it is rare that you reach speeds and decelerate from them repeatedly, like you do on a race track. More commonly you reach a particular speed band and adjust the speed within that range. In many instances it is an advantage to have brakes which are sensitive to small gradients of driver input because they allow fine control of braking, trail-braking and braking while cornering when you adjusting the attitude of the car in a succession of corners with different radiae. If your brakes over-heat on a single 0mph-150mph-0mph then you need hotter pads, or larger disks or both. If not then you have some difficult decision-making to do regarding the choice of pad composition.



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C - Ceaser








- For the post-war era, most camshafts have been driven be a double chain drive from the crank. The camshaft, located not far away from the crankshaft, will then actuate push-rods, which will eventually actuate the valves. Chain drive is quiet, efficient and long-lived. Not something you give much thought to. Chain drive over a long distance such as on the Ford FE series SOHC could be problematic. The chain was around seven feet long. That meant that chain stretch and play would be significant. It would be more like dealing with a motorcycle drive train. When overhead camshafts became popular in the Seventies, flat-section Kevlar toothed drive-belts had been developed. These would run a long distance without stretch or whip, did not elongate slowly in service and require tensioning, and consumed less horsepower than chains. The belts allowed the construction of serpentine accessory drives where the water pump, the alternator, the power steering pump and the air conditioning pump all ran off the same belt which serpentined around the various cogs and tensioner wheels. The only problem with Kevlar drive belts was that they did not last forever, like the double-stack chains used previously. Furthermore they did not gradually become slack like a chain drive, they suddenly burst. This meant that the belts had to be changed at specific service intervals. If the Kevlar belt driving the camshaft broke, the valves would stop. The pistons would still be going up and down and would smash into the valves, bending them and holing the piston tops. The noise made when this happened was an odd, relatively quiet fluttering noise. A whispering death. For that was the end of the engine. Race engine design had worked around this problem much earlier. In the Sixties, F1 engines started using a gear drive from the crankshaft to the overhead cams. This could be accomplished by adding an extra idler gear between the the gearwheel mounted on the crankshaft and the gearwheel mounted on the camshaft on top of the cylinder head. This eliminated any concerns over camshaft drive. It never broke and never needed replacing. With gear drive the camshaft always did what it was told by the crankshaft, letter for letter. On much larger engines, like the Merlin (26 liters), the drive from the crankshaft to the camshaft was a greater distance and a driveshaft (called a jackshaft) was used to drive the camshaft. Equally good although you would have to control the amount of torsion in the driveshaft in order to make sure that the camshaft did not start to run behind the engine.

- Camshaft Drives; Gear Drives; In F1 engines, the gear drive to the cams from the crankshaft was using straight-cut gears. Straight-cut gears in any application make a lot of noise. Straight-cut gears in a gear box make a terrific whining noise as each gear tooth strikes the next gear tooth all at once. In a race car the noise does not matter as much because you can barely hear it above the deafening din from the unsilenced exhausts exiting directly under the floor-pan. Straight-cut gears in road-going production cars went out before the war because of the noise. From then on, gears were helical cut. The softer meshing of the gears in a helical cut gearbox as the gearteeth slice toward each other makes no noise. The two gearshafts will try to escape from each other in opposite directions because of the 'wedge' effect from the two teeth meeting each other, which means you need a thrust bearing at each end of the gearshaft. In a race car, this bearing absorbs horsepower, which is why race cars have straight-cut gears. They absorb less horsepower. The way to eliminate thrust bearings and noise is to use double-helical gears. They are gears cut in a 'V' shape. They mesh in a sliding motion like helical cut, but do not have the 'wedge' effect of helical gears because the force is captured by the 'V' of the gears and the two gearwheels cannot escape from each other. Double-helical gears were expensive because you need to mill two gearwheels and bolt them together. The Citroen 'symbol' was because originally they used double-helical gears. While double helical would be unnecessary weight on a race car, on a road car it would offer the advantages of the quietness of helical cut gears but without the power loss from the thrust bearings. Probably the last time anything was fitted with double helical gears was before the war thus manufacturers are not set-up for making double-helical gearboxes and there is no one still working who ever dealt with them.
- - You do not see gear-drives on camshafts for production cars because of the noise they generate which means manufacturers chose chain drive. It would be possible to use double-helical and avoid the thrust bearings necessary on helical gears. Myself I like the howl of straight-cut gears. And if you drive a car for twenty-four hours staight, your ears roar with road noise in any case. Straight cut or helical cut. The beauty of gear drives for the camshaft is that compared to chain drive or belt drive, they are free of any concerns over longevity or adjustment.






- IN FILM: The French Connection; Bullitt (1968); Goldfinger (1964) ; O.H.M.S.S (1968); Magnum Force (1974); Mad Max (1979);Ronin (1998); The Blues Brothers (1981) .

- IN LITERATURE: Casino Royale (1953); Moonraker (1955).



+ CIRCUIT ; Road Course ;

- Circuit de Périphérique - The French thoughtfully provided a race circuit around Paris called the Boulevard Périphérique Wikipedia - Boulevard Périphérique Wikipedia - Boulevard Périphérique Wikipedia - Prince Noir Link - youtube - The Black Prince on the Peripherique Link - Youtube - Circuit de Périphérique Several motorcycle riders (notably the Black Prince) have set very fast times in both darkness and daylight.


+ CAM-18 Civil Aeronautics Manual 18 - 1943 Link - CAM-18 Civil Aeronautics Manual fp 1943 pdf

- This is the basic manual for dealing with riveted sheet aluminum and associated joints, fixtures, fittings, perforations, interstetces, construction and repair.

- 2016: For at least ten years the upper-middle price bracket of the mainstream automotive industry, in its attempt to find a lighter vehicle structure, has had to face the fact that it must move to aircraft construction materials and joining methods - riveted aluminum - in order to produce a lighter structure than the classic pressed steel in the same way that in the 1950s the automotive industry had to move from steel chassis and separate bodywork in order to save weight.


+ Clarkson, Jeremy

- Fired from Top Gear

- Top Gear in the Italian Lakes

Jeremy Clarkson: Lion Passant Guardant d'Or


The Stig: Some say he masterminded the ultimate evil: Jimmy Savile, Jeremy Clarkson and Adolf Hitler
The Stig Wikipedia - Link - : Some say he masterminded the ultimate Evil.



- Gumball , from Gumball Rally (1976). The codeword was the signal to assemble for the trans-continental race.





2009-JUN-01 - Air France Flight 447 crashes Wikipedia - Air France Flight 447 , killing all passengers and crew. That is what happens when you let teenagers program your flight control software.

- Computers have become more prevalent in automobile design since the 1990s. With the increasing capabilities of control engineering, (sensors and remote controllers) coupled with the increasing porcessing power and cheapness of computers chips has allowed designers to have a single computer controlling all the functions of the vehicle. The danger of this is, like any single point of failure, that if the computer fails so does the car. A greater danger is remote connection of that computer via the mobile telephone network and satellites. This increases the danger of the automobile's computer being hi-jacked by hackers.#


- COMPUTERS ; Arm Emergency Clear ;





- The job of the connecting rod is mainly in compression.

- High performance connecting rods will have an oil gallery bored through them which feeds pressurised oil from the connecting rod big-end bearing up to the wrist-pin (GB: 'Gudgeon Pin') to lubricate it. Excess oil which escapes will help cool the underside of the piston. AMG developed an experimental connecting rod which instead of having an oil gallery bored through the center, had a tube set on one side of the I-beam central web. The tube fitted into a bore a the wrist-pin small-end of the connecting rod (top) and the big-end of the connecting rod (bottom). The tube was fixed by welding. The engineer did not mention the method of welding the tube in place but the only method I would countenance would be by electron beam welding. This method of constructing the connecting rod oil gallery turned out to produce a lighter connecting rod but AMG did not appear to have used them in their engine series (for the CLK GTR). If there was a reason I imagine it was because of the nerve-racking difficulty of ensuring weld consistency, the difficulty in matching the weights of the connecting rods and nervousness about the oil tubing giving way during a race.


- Connecting Rod ; Bolts ;

- - 8740 steel or greater

- - ARP ; As recommended by the late great Carroll Smith;

- - SPS, UNJ

- - - FORD - INDY V8

From Nuts, Bolts, Fasteners and Plumbing Handbook by Carroll Smith , fp 1990

   The UNJ Wikipedia - thread was developed in aerospace when it became obvious that a thread form offering more resistance to fatigue was required. The UNJ specifications call out a thread root radius of 0.150 to 0.180 times the pitch length. The UNJ thread is used on most aerospace bolts with an ultimate tensile strength of 160,000 psi and above. It first became known outside the aerospace industry as the J thread on the bolts that Standard Pressed Steel Wikipedia - supplied to solve supplied to solve the connecting rod breakage problem on the Ford Motor Company's four-cam Indianapolis engine Wikipedia - in the mid 1960s. Where the regulations permit them every racing engine builder in their right mind still uses SPS bolts with the UNJ thread for connecting rod bolts. Standard nuts and taps suit both UNR and UNJ threads which, except for the included angle of the thread, are remarkably similar in form to the British Whitworth Wikipedia - thread, which was abandoned in favor of UNF and UNJ back in 1948.


- Connecting Rods ; Materials ;

- - 4340 steel # ;

- - Aluminum # ; Generally only used in drag race engines. Top Fuel replace their aluminum rods every twenty runs. Partly due to fatigue life. #

- - Titanium # ; Titanium rods are about just under twenty-five percent lighter for the same strength as 4340 steel. Titanium galls when touching other metals and has to be given a ceramic coating like CVD, PVD or DLC in order to stop its surface abraiding when in contact with steel. Furthermore, titanium is notch sensitive with respect to its fatugue life.


- Connecting Rod ; Stress ;

- - Remember that the connecting rod is in compression during the power stroke. Metal components are comfortable in compression and failures are rare. Connecting rods do fail in compression/bending but not often. Connecting rod bolts are only necessary to stop the piston flying off the end during the upswing of the stroke. This is why the stress on connecting rod bolts is proportional to RPM and nothing to do with who much power you are making the cylinder. During the power stroke, the connecting rod is under compression. The connecting rod cap is superfluous at this point. Connecting rod bolts fail usually at the end of the exhaust stroke when, if all has gone well with the cam timing, the compressed exhaust gasses will have made their way out of the exhaust port with such felicity that they leave a vacuum behind them. The piston is not even having to push on a compressed intake charge, which would cushion the pistons arrival at TDC top-dead-center. Thus it is the connecting rod bolts which have the job of holding the piston and connecting rod on the crankshaft at the top of the exhaust stroke when the momentum of the piston would make it carry on and out through the head.

- Connecting Rod ; Nuts ;

- - Carroll Smith says he has never seen a connecting rod bolt but come loose and this is because they are properly torqued. He points out that they can come loose if there is a dirt inclusion left under the thread.

- - I have come had a connecting rod bolt nut come loose on a road going engine I did not assemble myself. It took about fifty thousand miles to come so loose that the cap was loose at one side. The bearing wore through in an oval shape. Then one day, it wore through enough that the thin 'blade' broke off and started moving around the bearing, which caused it to bind. This made the engine seize. Assembling connecting rod bolts is one of those jobs that there is only one person in the entire world who can do it: You.





- Crankshafts ; Materials ;

- - 4340 steel ; Steels with a higher tensile strength have a lower fatigue life.





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CH - Charlotte





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D - Dora



- Daimler Double-Six Wikipedia - Daimler Double-Six Corsica Wikipedia - Corsica Coachworks Coupe Link - Link - ; If Cruella DeVille had had a wicked uncle, this is the automobile he would have driven.


Daimler Double-Six Corsica Coupe GP4831


Daimler Double-Six Corsica Coupe GP4831






Predator (1987)
Predator (1987) Dashboard of a Bell Huey Wikipedia - Bell Huey UH-1 Iroquois Link - USMC Combat Helicopter Association

Predator (1987)



Alfa Romeo racing car dashboard, showing Veglia instrumention - engine coolant temperature, tachometer, fuel pressure, benzine pressure, oil pressure, olio pressure, and Veglia font
Alfa Romeo cockpit dashboard, with Veglia instrumentation. Inset are the numerals used on the Veglia tachometer, and for comparison are numerals in mil-spec 33558 font, which is the USAF instrument font



- von Karajan ; Herbert von Karajan ;

- Rachmaninov ; Serge Rachmaninov ;

- #

- #

- #

- #

- #

- #




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E - Emil





A Ä B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Ö P Q R S ß T U Ü V W X Y Z



F - Friedrich




- For a full treatment on this important subject see Nuts, Bolts, Fasteners and Plumbing Handbook by Carroll Smith.

- FASTENERS ; Bolts, nuts and screws. ; Threads on bolts and screws are made by rolling them against a blank. This is effectively forging them. You can cut threads onto rod using either a die or a lathe but a cut thread cuts through the grain of the metal and then adds a lot of sharp nicks which create points where fatigue cracks will start. Cut threads are not of any service to us in aerospace or automotive applications for this reason although they may be of service in applications which are not fatigue loaded.

- The difference between a poorly manufactured bolt and bolt manufactured to a high standard cannot be evident to the naked eye nor most inspection systems which means that a reliance is placed on the integrity of the manufacturer. For this reason, reputation plays an important part in choice of fasteners. Bolts which have been produced incorrectly will fail prematurely in fatigue. 'Fake' bolts are a nightmare for the FAA because premature failure from fatigue will result in the loss of an airliner. For this reason, regimes such as procedures and inspection (ISO 9000) play in important role in ensuring that the fastener manufacturer is integrated into the production process. Within the industry this is generally recognized now but it was not thirty years ago. In wartime shoddy workmanship should be savagely punished. Personally I would have these people charged with sabotage, then on an immediate transfer to the Eastern Front, such is the importance of quality control. Bolts which are selected by competitive tender and chosen as lowest bidder are just an accident waiting to happen. The bolts could well be poorly manufactured from some nameless manufacturer in Taiwan, Korea or nowadays China and probably are. If you have lived and worked in G6 countries all your life, or just in Germany, Great Britain or the United States then you will have never encountered substandard parts and it will be inconceivable to you that they could exist. Going forward to the late 1990s in Second and Third World countries you will find sub-standard Chinese goods on sale. The ability of these companies to make an piece of machinery bicycle which can hold together long enough to get it out of the shop but is starting to pieces fall off it half an hour later is quite staggering. Many contracts for oilfield machinery and components specifically state that no part may be manufactured in China, for this reason.

With the arrival of China in world markets in the 1990s, this aspect of production has been revisited because of the quantity of fake parts coming out of China. Fake parts are parts made to look like another manufacturer's parts. You can buy entirely fake Commins and Caterpillar diesel engines, entirely made in China. For this reason you should only buy from an authorized dealer and even then investigate and check that the relationship actually exists and that your engine came from the factory.


- - Dzus Fasteners Wikipedia - Dzus Fasteners




- - Use MS24102 Jet nuts and K nuts



- FASTENERS ; Suppliers

- Cherry Aerospace #

- #

- #

- #

- #

- #

- #

- #

- Ferrari Factory, Maranello, Modena, Italia;

- Ferrari Daytona ; See Gumball Rally (1976) ;


+ FUEL ;


- - Fuel Injection ; In the age before digital electronics ;

- - - Carburetors were ubiquitous from the invention of the internal combustion engine though to the invention of digital electronics. Attempts to enhance the performance of carburetors were driven by fighter aircraft development at the start of World War II. One of the problems with carburetors in fighter aircraft is that when you push the stick forward to make the aircraft five (bunt) the fuel in the float-bowl flies up against the top of the float bowl and stops supplying the jets with fuel. The result is that the engine stumbles. The Bf109 was fitted with a system of mechanical fuel injection in order to solve this.

Mechanical fuel injection systems consisted of a small piston pump which contained as many pistons as there were cylinders in the engine. Each pump of a piston would supply the amount of fuel which the cylinder would require if the engine was running at wide-open throttle. Various mechanical systems were added in order to make the pump feed a gradually decreasing quantity of fuel as the throttles were gradually closed until the engine was at idle. These mechanical systems would become more complicated the more accurate the designers tried to make the injection system become at delivering part-throttle quantities of fuel. Mechanical fuel injection systems were good at delivering the quantity of fuel required by the engine at wide open throttle, because, within limits, that was a known quantity. However, at part-throttle they were in accurate and tended to delivery too much fuel in preference to too little because too little fuel would case the engine to run lean, which creates surplus unburned hot oxygen in the cylinder, which will cause any hot metal to burn away. This meant that mechanical fuel injection systems were used only in fighter aircraft or in race cars. One or two mechanical systems ended up on street cars but the fuel consumption was high, even in comparison to thirsty fuel delivery setups such eight Weber down-draft carburetors on and eight cylinder engines.

- - - Accurate fuel delivery, where every atom of oxygen is matched with a molecule hydrogen or carbon from the hydro-carbon fuel, has to be achieved by measuring the exact quantity of air that the engine is breathing in. The carburetor did this by matching the size of a needle jet in the venturi with the size of the intake in the carburetor. It worked well. The more air rushed through the carburetor, the more fuel was sucked through the jet. Engines are always fed slightly excess fuel to ensure that all of the hot oxygen within the cylinder is burned. Excess oxygen would be heated in the combustion process and if it did not react with the fuel, would find a red-hot piece of metal to react with with. The hottest part of the cylinder is the exhaust valve and the piston edge. If the lean condition continued, especially if the engine was being run at wide-open throttle and was therefore hot, then the valve would burn through. This means that the search for more accurate, more efficient fuel metering consists of finding a more accurate way of measuring the air which is flowing into the engine. If the quantity of air is known accurately and if a system can be found which will meter fuel accurately, the exact quantity of fuel can be injected with only the slightest excess for the purposes of insurance.

- - - The final age of the mechanical fuel injection system was in the late Seventies and early Eighties with systems like the superb Bosch K-Jetronic. The K-Jetronic was accurate enough that it could be fitted to road-going factory production saloon cars. The K-Jetronic was sized to feed an engine of around three-hundred horsepower maximum, which meant that more powerful cars such as Ferraris (and the occasional Detroit V8 race car) had to use on system on each bank of the engine.

Shortly after this came the Holy Grail of fuel metering systems: A method of measuring exactly how much air was being taken into the engine. The new mechanism consisted of a heated wire or plate (usually made of platinum) which was located in the central intake of the engine. The more air the engine consumed, the greater the quantity of electrical current was required to keep the heated wire at a specific temperature. The quantity of electrical amperage consumed to keep the wire at a specific temperature was directly proportional to the quantity of air being drawn into the engine. Engineers now had an exact figure which could be used to control any system which would meter the fuel. What was required was a system which would meter fine increments of fuel. In the early Eighties there were great developments in the field of Control Engineering which aided the design of the new fuel injection systems. The fuel would be metered using solenoid actuated valves. The solenoid actuated the valve and the length of time the valve was open determined how much fuel was injected. Each intake runner had its own solenoid valve so that each cylinder was fed with its own fuel. The control box read the quantity of air flowing into the engine from the heated platinum wire and then used an integrated circuit board to determine how long the solenoid on the fuel metering valve should stay open. Digital electronic fuel injection had arrived. Fuel could be metered almost exactly so that each atom of oxygen which the cylinder had drawn in could be matched with an atom of hydrogen or carbon. This meant that the engine would be both efficient, in that it burned no more fuel than it needed to, and that it would be powerful because the engine's fuel requirements were always being mapped exactly rather than approximately.

- - - The biggest advantage of this fuel injection system over a carburetor is that the heated wire metering measures the mass of air flowing into the engine whereas a carbureter meters the volume of air flowing into the engine. The difference is that the air pressure changes every day with the weather. Low pressure under approaching thunderstorms and high pressure under warm stable air. The volume of the air is the same but because the pressure is different, the same volume of air will contain a different number of atoms. This means that a carburetor, which meters by volume will always feed the same quantity of fuel to the same volume of air, regardless of whether that volume of air contains high pressure air or low pressure air. The situation becomes worse when the automobile climbs a mountain because the air pressure becomes lower and lower the higher you climb. The carburetor is still feeding the right quantity of fuel for one volume of air at sea level yet that volume does not contain anything like the quantity of oxygen atoms which it does at sea level. The engine runs rich as a result of this.

With a heated wire mass air-flow sensor in the fuel injection system, it takes one atom or molecule of air to take away one unit of heat. The volume of the air is irrlevent, its pressure is irrelevant. The heated wire will not relinquish one unit of heat unless there is one atom of air to take it away. This means that the heated wire mass air-flow sensor is always telling the fuel injection system exactly how many oxygen atoms are passing into the engine, regardless of the pressure of that air. Not only will the fuel injection system meter the correct quantity of fuel on a day of high air pressure or low air pressure but it will meter the correct quantity of fuel even if the engine is at the top of a mountain and breathing in very low pressure air. This is the great increase in efficiency which heated wire mass air-flow sensors give over carburetors.



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- One of the problems with producing parts-interchangeable replicas of great automobiles is the immense difficulty in either sourcing or reproducing rare engines. Even when I was young, Ford FE series Wikipedia - Link - Ford V8 FE series Link - Ford Muscle Forums FE engines 427 side-oiler engines were uncommon and expensive. The FE series SOHC Wikipedia - even more so. It was these engines which powered Shelby Cobras and Ford GT40s. The good news is that as of the beginning of this new millennium, it has never been easier to source a Ford FE series 427 side-oiler and that it has never been a better engine. Pond Racing Link - Pond Racing make an all aluminum block which is both lighter and stronger than the original factory block and Survival Motorsports Link - Survival Motorsports make a crankshaft for the FE series forged from 4340 steel (the finest alloy for crankshafts). The FE block side-oiler had perhaps ten different patterns of combustion chamber, partly because the early patterns suffered from cracking at weak points in the combustion chamber. Which pattern they have chosen for their heads I know not. My guess is that they will have designed their own pattern of combustion chamber.

Shelby Cobra chassis plate Powered by Ford

- Probably, the last time any one cast aliminum Ford FE 427 side-oilers was in the late 1980s when Carroll Shelby restarted production of the Shelby Cobra 427 S/C and needed engines. The only way to produce them was to ask Ford if they minded him casting his own, because Ford had not produced an FE side-oiler since the 1960s. At that time, this was no small under-taking. Shelby had un-used CSX VIN-numbers from the original 1960s production run and was able to use these to build and license the cars as 1960s road vehicles, which meant he did not have to fit emissions controls, which would have ruined the car. Those 1960s VIN-plates were gold dust.

- If you are looking for cylinders then Darton Link - Darton International cylinder liners are the leading maker, who made their first liners for a Top Fuel Wikipedia - motor being built by the late great Keith Black Wikipedia - Link - in 1978. Darton make liners for all of the Top Fuel and Funny car teams.

- If like me you have ever wanted to own the royalty of Ford Mustangs Wikipedia - Ford Mustang, the BOSS 429, but have never done so, now is your chance. Original BOSS 429 are worth around half a million dollars (2010). They were never cheap by Mustang standards when they were new. Like many valuable, original cars, they are too valuable to drive except to special events such as shows. So even if you could obtain one, you would need a replica if wanted to drive a BOSS 429 as your daily driver. I think the first time I heard of replicas of any cars being built it was the late Seventies and it was 1950s/1960s Ferraris which were being replicated by a pair of brothers in California who spent their lives restoring Ferraris. Prices of many marques of cars have risen steadily since then and many more cars are too valuable to use and thus are being replicated. With the Mustang, you can purchase an ordinary 1969 or 1970 bodyshell for very little, and then purchase your own BOSS 429 Link - 460 Ford Forum 385 series engine from Kaase Racing Link - Jon Kaase Racing which uses an aluminum block from C&C Motorsports, Kaase aluminum heads and a forged crank by Sonny Bryant at Bryant Racing Link - Bryant Racing. In my youth I wanted to purchase a BOSS 429 from a dealers, new. Turn the key, and pull away. Then drive the BOSS 429 as a daily driver. Driving long distances. Impossible to do that in an original BOSS 429 now but easy to do by constructing a replica. I would ship the Mustang bodyshell without engine to Kaase and let them fit the BOSS 429 engine, so that I could step back into 1969, arrive at the dealer, turn the key in the ignition and drive away. Collecting a car like that is always a big event in your life no matter how many times you do it and on the big day I always carefully consider which clothes I am going to wear and what I will have for breakfast.

- Nearly no modifications would be required. The original BOSS 429 had uprated front spindles to cope with the extra cornering weight and the shock towers were moved outboard to clear the valve-covers on the large motor. I would also make the factory spec chassis modifications made to the BOSS 302, which are specified in the manual. The Ford Toploader 4-speed gearbox I would replace with a six-speed from gearbox from one of the after-market racers (we used to fit Doug Nash 5-speed gearboxes, but he passed on). The Ford Toploader 4-speed was a great gearbox in the year that it was designed but simply it did not have enough gears: The factory BOSS 429 would cover the quarter mile in just over thirteen seconds, achieving just over one-hundred miles per hour but the Toploader would only take the car to a maximum speed of one hundred and fifteen miles per hour.
- Various Italian-made sports cars have had until recently rather weak clutches which were prone to over-heating quickly and suffering from high rates of wear. This meant that finding oneself in lines of heavy stop-start traffic meant that the clutch would take a battering and in some cases overheat. It was not until the 1980s that five speed gearboxes arrived and not until the 1990s that six speed gearboxes arrived. I can recall internal memoranda at Porsche discussing whether Porsche customers could operate a six-speed gearbox. Well I could operate an eighteen speed gearbox so this question was not a question. What the Italian-made cars with the under-specified clutch required was a gear below first gear. In trucks, there is usually a 'crawler' gear, which will take you up the side of a house. The crawler gear allows you to run the truck forward at a pace slower than walking pace and saves wear on the clutch. With a crawler gear on the sports car gearbox, you could nudge the car forward through traffic without over-heating the clutch. This would ease the workload and the tension of nudging a sports car through traffic, especially because at the same time the engine is starting to overheat and one is expecting to hear the steamy whoosh of a hose bursting at any moment. I can recall one dealer in San Francisco telling that they had one of the 4x4 Lamborghinis in for service with a shot clutch, and only a few thousand miles on the clock. The telephoned the factory who refused to accept it was a warranty repair. The clutch had worn out through the heavy use it gets on San Francisco's hill start junctions. The cost of replacing the clutch in mechanics time was large because of the amount of spaghetti which had to be unplugged from the engine. They told the lady owner that they could fit a GM TH400 transmission for less money and she would never have a clutch problem again but she was adamant that she wanted a new clutch.
- The reason the clutches were under-specified on these Italian sports cars is that the engines needed to be mounted low in the chassis. A single-plate clutch has to have a large diameter if it is to be made strong, which means that the clutch plate projects low below the crank counter-weights and close to the road. The way to reduce the diameter of the clutch is to make it a multi-plate clutch of much smaller diameter plates. Not really a problem but multi-plate clutches are more expensive and do not give fine control of the engine, tending to be on-or-off. That is something I can live with but a smoking clutch is not. Big-Blocks with wet-sumps had plenty of space at the back of the engine for a large-diameter clutch and so they never suffered from any clutch-related problems.
- At the top end of the gearbox I like an 'over-drive' gear which when engaged will reduce the top speed of the car, the gear being too high, but allow the engine to turn over at a reduced speed, giving a relaxed cruising speed and more range on one tank of fuel when the amount of traffic on the six-lane highway does not allow for fast speeds. The gears in between can be spaced to taste. For a performance car the gear ratios need to be spaced either side of the 'fillet' of the torque curve, so the engine is always flowing the largest quantity of torque regardless of what gear it is in. To orientate yourself: 'Top gear' on a four-speed box used to be one-to-one, which meant that the wheels rotated at engine speed.
- For their BOSS 429 Kaase offer various intake options but I would be interested in making a magnesium casting of the original intake manifold and carburettor and fitting a hidden multi-port fuel-injection system, so the induction system looked factory stock but had none of the mis-matches between carburetter, intake mainfold and camshaft which the factory original had. 'Other than that', it would be a factory stock car.

- There is one drawback: The Kaase Racing BOSS 429 delivers eight-hundred and sixty-three horsepower and seven-hundred and eighty-seven ft/lbs at the flywheel, compared to three-hundred and seventy-five horsepowers at the tires for the factory BOSS 429 - double the output. But you can't have everything.

- This would be, in my view, the ultimate big-block experience. A BOSS 302 chassis with the BOSS 429 motor. No such muscle car as this ever left the factory, but this specification was what the factory should have offered in the 1970 Mustang.

Hot Rod magazine cover 1983 1970 Ford Mustang BOSS 429 1969 Ford Mustang SOHC
The ultimate Ford Mustang line-up: A 1970 Ford Mustang BOSS 429 and 1969 Ford Mustang fitted with an FE Series 427 SOHC motor. The owner of these two Mustangs used to cruise Van Nuys Boulevard. If you know whom he is and if he is still alive then please let me know.

2015-JUL: STOP PRESS: Leafing through a compendium of HOT ROD magazine covers, I discover that this man is George Boskovich. This photograph was used on the cover of HOT ROD magazine April 1983 and the text article was by 'Baskerville'.

2015-SEP: STOP STOP PRESS! PRESS!: Armed with the above information and an internet search I discovered that 'Pop' Boskovich Link - Pop Boskovich Ford Mustang collection Link - Pop Boskovich Ford Mustang collection Link - Pop Boskovich Ford Mustang collection Link - Pop Boskovich Ford Mustang collection Link - Hot Rod Magazine Pop Boskovich's Ford Mustang BOSS 429 and 426 SOHC collection is now owned by his son, George II, and grandson, George III, after 'Pop' Boskovich passed on in 1994. The BOSS 429 is still in his collection owned by his son and grandson but his 427 SOHC Mustang was stolen, apparantly some time after its appearance in HOT ROD. However, Pop's son built another 426 SOHC Mustang for Pop, this time with a C6 transmission instead of a 4-speed Toploader. 'Pop' Boskovich also had a large collection of important Mustangs in addition to the two in the photograph, probably the best collection in the world. This is like finding out who that GI was on the cover of Life magazine.

In HOT ROD April 1983 'Pop' Boskovich told:

   "We used to run back and forth between Van Nuys and Canoga Park on Sherman Way. But when they removed the railroad tracks and installed traffic lights on Van Nuys Boulevard in the late '50s, we all made the switch. During the past 25 years, I'll bet I've made 5,000 passes up and down that street and I always did it in a Ford."

Pop's replacement 426 SOHC Mustang featured:

- crankshaft by Bishop-Buehl stroked to 472ci
- 4.155 inch I-beam connecting rods
- dual quad Holley 660 cfm carburetors
- Arias pistons
- Crane 'Nitro' cams with .562 lift
- MSD ignition




- There is no shortage of Ford small blocks still on the road or in scrapyards. However if you want to build a car with a Ford small block then in my opinion the best small block for road use would be the 335 Series Wikipedia - 351ci Cleveland. The Boss 302 some differences in design which made it more suitable for racing (solid lifters, screw-in core plugs) but for a road car for recreational use I would take the Cleveland. Todd Buttermore/Tim Meyer are casting aluminum 335 Series Cleveland blocks which means that if you are rebuilding then you can improve on your original engine. Many De Tomaso Pantera Wikipedia - were fitted with the Cleveland engine. The current Ford small-block Modular Wikipedia - engine can substitute and already has an aluminum block and heads, so you can save yourself some trouble and drop one of these engines in. But if like me you are highly resistant to change, then the new aluminum 351ci Cleveland engine may be for you.

- The convertible automobile I have always wanted is the 1965 Ford Mustang Wikipedia - Ford Mustang. Never expensive in absolute terms but never cheap in Mustang terms, the way I would produce one now is to purchase a 1965 notch-back and rebuild the entire car as a convertible, making the same chassis modifications as were made to the Shelby GT350, with the exception of the race brake pads, which are less usable on the road. The 1965/1966 bodyshell will accept the much wider 335 Series 351ci Cleveland engine (I have done it) and so I would build the car with this small-block, in aluminum. Again a six-speed gearbox. Again, there is a drawback: This Cleveland block will take 427 cubic inches of displacement, meaning that you will be a running a big-block displacement in a small block. But you cannot have everything.

- The Ford GT40 were built with the 289ci Ford small-block but these can be rebuilt by being fitted with Darton wet sleeves. This would keep the block original.


- FORD ; Shelby Mustang GT500 'Super Snake' 1967

- - Shelby produced a Mustang GT500 'Super Snake' with the FE 427 side-oiler producing 520HP (stated) which would run to 7000rpm with a top end of 176 mph.. The side-oiler, before the advent of the 385 Series BOSS 429 block in 1969 was the most desireable Ford Big-Block. It had powered the Cobra 427 S/C, the later GT40, and Ford's NASCAR wins. In 1967 a Mustang with a 427 side-oiler was as good as it was going to get. The USD7500 price tag meant that it remained on the lot unsold for more than half a year. Research by Mike Mueller (author of The Complete Book of Ford Mustang) into Shelby's invoices indicates that there may have been a few other Super-Snakes manufactured and sold. Certainly less than ten. Some sources state three. Those cars must be somewhere. Together with the BOSS 429, the 'Super-Snake' would have been the Mustang with the best performance. Likely, the Super-Snake was the most powerful and best performing Mustang of all time on account that the tune of the FE engine was superior in output to the poor tuning by the factory of the BOSS 492 resulting from the poor combination of intake manifold and carburetor size.




- -

- - According to Ford Engineer Bill Barr, under development, the BOSS 302 engine on the dynamometer, with all ancillary equipment in place and working, manages to develop 314 horsepower. When stripped of ancillary drives, with no air cleaner and fitted with headers instead of the factory manifold, the BOSS 302 develops more than 390 horsepower.


Parnelli Jones George Follmer



- The start-karts which were used to turn over the giant J-58 engines on the Lockheed SR-71 were powered by two Chevrolet 454ci big-blocks. They were unsilenced so you can imagine the sound four four 454 all running at full chat in order to turn the J58's up to speed. The connector was a mechanical drive which turned the mainshaft via a gearbox in the center of the engine so that the engines were being turned by a direct mechanical drive rather than compressed air motor which most start-karts drive.






- Grand Prix (1966)

- Ferrari: Ferrari spin-offs: Several car marques were produced as a result of Enzo Ferrari having a falling-out with someone at Ferrari.

- - Giotto Bizzarini Wikipedia - Bizzarrini, designed the 250GTO and left Ferrari after the 'night of the long knives', which seems to have been caused by Enzo's wife. Bizzarini set up his own marque, named Bizzarini and produced the 3500GT Wikipedia - Bizzarrini 5300 GT as well as the Iso Grifo.

- - Ferrari Customer Fiorruco Lamborghini Wikipedia - Wikipedia - Lamborghini Miura became frustrated with the slow pace of Ferrari service and set up his eponymous automobile marque. Never a real threat to Ferrari, until the advent of the Germans ...

- - The owners of the Swiss Ferrari dealership fell-out with Enzo and set up his own marque Montiverdi Wikipedia - which produced the highly respectable Hai model.

- - With the exception of Lamborghini, the other two marques went the way of all small sports car marques, which rarely have enough capital to undertake development, and are unable to produce their own engines, relying instead on finding a large manufacturer which will sell them engines.



+ FLY-OFF Wikipedia -

- Fly-Off; Hells Angels;


From Hells Angels by Hunter S. Thompson:

   The only other incident of the run occurred on Sunday night, just before the beer market closed at ten. The Angels who'd been there all day were totally drunk when it came time to go, but they insisted on doing it up right. Whenever they exit in a group, drunk or sober, they boom off like a flight of jet fighters leaving a runway -- one at a time, in rapid succession, and with over­whelming noise. The basic idea is that individual launches keep them from running into each other, but the Angels have developed the ritual to the realm of high drama. The order of departure doesn't matter, but the style and rhythm are crucial. They care­fully prime their carburetors so the bikes will start on the first kick. An outlaw whose hog won't leap off like a thunderbolt feels a real stigma. It has the same effect as a gun jamming in combat or an actor blowing a key line: "To be or not to be. . . quoth the raven."
   This is about the way it went at the beer market. A big crowd gathered in the driveway to watch the finale. A photographer rushed around frantically, flashing his strobe light every few sec­onds. But the Angels were too drunk to carry it off. Some of them flooded their carburetors, then raged and cursed as they jumped repeatedly on the kick starters. Others went careening off simul­taneously or veered into the crowd with wild yells. Many were carrying six-packs, which made control even more difficult. Those who'd flooded on the first launch tried to atone for it by screeching off on one wheel, gunning their engines mercilessly to get up a head of steam before springing the clutch. Buck, a mas­sive Joker, crashed into a police car before he got out of first gear and was taken straight to jail, where he spent the next thirty days. Frip from Oakland went flying off the road and hit a tree, breaking his ankle and blocking traffic on the narrow lake­side road.


Surgeon General Warning: Emulating the feats of Hunter S Thompson can lead to serious injury, death, jail or a seriously good time. Font: Helvetica LT standard bold condensced HelveticaLTStd-BoldCond.otf


- Fly-Off; Navy: When an aircraft carrier approaches its home port, the air wing on the carrier will fly all the aircraft off the carrier and head for the airfield where they are based. There is a charged atmosphere when this happens because of the prospect of shore leave and elevated tension when that many aircraft are launched at once.


- Fly-Off; Air Force: This is more likely termed a scramble, where a fighter wing would be scrambled to intercept incoming enemy aircraft. In the jet age, USAF and RAF nuclear-armed bombers would be scrambled in event of nuclear attack. While all of the bomber scrambles were impressive, thunderous smoke-ridden events perhaps the best of the scrambles was the B-58 scramble Wikipedia - Link - where the USAF had developed a drill which enabled the aircraft to take off in a stream at intervals where there were always several aircraft on the runway at once. Fighter aircraft would often take-off in pairs and presumably at some time, if I know fighter pilots, would take off with several pairs on the runway at once.

- The book-end of the Fly-Off is the arrival and engine shut-down. This ceremony can be observed in Mad Max (1979) where the Hells Angels arrive and park-up their motorcycles with the engines still running Wikipedia - Link - . The leader then signals with his hand and the Hells Angels rev their motorcycles until he signals them to cut the ignition all at once. I have seen this done with Ferraris, which was equally impressive.



Elf Formula 1 racing gasoline
Elf Formula 1 racing gasoline canisters



My soldiers can eat their belts, but my tanks ... they gotta have gas.

- General George S. Patton




- - For filler cap designs, see the Shelby Cobra design, and the 1969/1970 Ford Mustang designs. Twin filler caps are normally for twin tanks. I can only think of the Jaguar Saloons which have twin tanks. Mini Coopers used to have twin fillers but I do not know if they had twin tanks. The big advantage of twin filler caps is that you can load fuel from two gas pumps at the same time which saves on pit stop time when you want to get back onto the Autobahn.

Shelby Cobra Daytona fuel filler cap close-up
Shelby Cobra Daytona fuel filler cap

2016 Ferrari F12 Berlinetta fuel filler cap license plate 3XX
Ferrari F12 Berlinetta fuel filler cap

2016 Ferrari F12 Berlinetta fuel filler cap license plate 3XX

2016 Ferrari F12 Berlinetta fuel filler cap license plate 3XX


aircraft carrier deck hand signals for fuel (grapes) from
Aircraft carrier deck hand signals for fuel (grapes) from Fuel handling deck hands wear purple jackets, hence the moniker 'grapes'.

If I Ruled The World .... this is how gas stations would be. Like a combination between a Pit-Stop and an Aircraft Carrier Deck Launch. High-lead high octane 115/145 Av-Gas would be available (we'd need extra hand signals to add to this set in order to indicate to the purple-jackets if you needed 115/145 Avgas, 104 octane racing gas, methanol or nitro-methane) and the fuel transfer would be via the large hoses they use to fuel carrier aircraft.

USN USAF under-wing jet fuel filler nozzle: Left to right: Manufacturers photograph, US Navy aircraft carrier deck connected, US Navy aircraft carrier deck connected, US Navy aircraft carrier deck being carried to aircraft, US Navy aircraft carrier deck lying on fuel hoses, maker's mark 'Carter', US Air Force ground crew maker's mark visible 'Carter', manufacturers photograph
US Navy / US Air Force under-wing jet fuel filler nozzle.


The green-jackets would put the car up on the air jacks, new tires fitted, windshield wiped & de-bugged, a white-jacketed steward would step forward with a cup of Expresso and a glass of ice-water to the open driver's window. With the car down off the jacks and the purple-jackets signaling the tanks were full, the yellow-jacketed 'shooter' would give you the signal to launch.

Shooter - the title of the leading yellow jacketed aircraft carrier deck handling crew. He gives the signal to fire the steam catapult. The font used is either USAF Stencil.ttf or Browning.ttf
'Shooter' - the rank of the yellow-jacketed US Navy aircraft carrier deck crew who gives the instruction to launch the steam catapult.






- - Fuels; Alcohol ; One of the things which will catch you out in the design of anything new will be the unexpected. While alcohol fueled drag racing engines worked fine, when alcohol was used in road car engines, it was found that it created a chemical reaction between the top ring and the piston, which eroded the top ring. Drag race engines did not last long enough for anyone to notice this.

- - Fuels ; Gasoline ; Using high-octane gasoline which as 115/145 Aviation gasoline the maximum compression in the cylinder is typically 12:1 although I have seen racing engines running 13:1. When burning methanol the engine can run 14:1 or 15:1.

- - Fuels ; Toluene ; Turbo-era F1 engineers sought out high-octane fuels which were knock-resistance in order to run boost pressures as high as possible. They found that toluene was the most suitable. #

- - Fuels ; Nitromethane ; Nitromethane is a strange beast. If you drop a match into it, it will put the match out. If you feed it to the engine neat, the spark, even the great big long-during spark from a magneto, will not ignite it. You have to add a few percent alcohol to the Nitromethane, so that the spark can ignite that. Nitromethane is by no means stable. If you compress it as a liquid, then shock it, it will explode. Nitromethane CH3N02 contains oxygen, unlike other hydro-carbon fuels, and so it can react in the absense of air. Using pump gas, a 500ci engine supercharged will give you around 1000HP. But using nitromethane, that same engine will give about 8000HP (as of 2015). Four of them would power a Jumbo jet to take-off.

- - It is interesting to plan on the development of a race engine burning nitromethane for use in a car which would set new fastest times on whatever course would permit such an engine to be used. Perhaps the one of the US closed road races like the Silver State Classic Wikipedia - Silver State Classic or the 'Circuit du Peripherique' Wikipedia - Boulevard Périphérique Wikipedia - Boulevard Périphérique Wikipedia - Prince Noir Link - youtube - The Black Prince on the Peripherique Link - Youtube - Circuit de Périphérique . The problem would be that nitromethane is four times as voluminous as gasoline, which means that one of the limitations will be the range of the tank. To an extent, this could be overcome by a variable compression engine which used a two speed gearbox drive to the blower, and a dual fuel system, one of which flowed nitromethane. Thus, nitromethane could be used only in top gear with the throttle wide open, to produce better acceleration and top speed on the large straights.

- Fuels; Nitrous Oxide N20 ;

- - Nitrous Oxide is not a hydro-carbon because it contains neither hydrogen nor carbon. Nitrous Oxide supplies oxygen to the combustion process, which allows you to inject and burn more fuel. In the heat of combustion, Nitrous Oxide decomposes to is constituents: Two atoms of nitrogen and one of oxygen. The same control system which admits the nitrous oxide admits more gasoline, which burns with the extra oxygen provided by the Nitrous Oxide.

- - - Nitrous Oxide has the added advantage that it is a liquid which evaporates in the intake manifold, taking heat from the incoming air charge and cooling the charge so that it becomes more dense and allowing the engine to take in more of it. Many Nitrous Oxide systems rig their injectors as close to the start of the air intake as possible so that the cooling effect of the Nitrous Oxide liquid has the entire length of the intake to cool the incoming gases.

- - - Control systems can be a basic flip-switch in the cockpit which starts the injection or have the refinement of a microswitch under the throttle pedal which actuates injection. This means that if you have to lift off, then the injection of Nitrous Oxide and the power-production halts in order that you can regain control of the situation.

- - - The most sensible way to build a drag car for street use is to buy a factory stock car and add a nitrous kit. You can double the horsepower and more for a tiny fraction of the price it would take you to add enough metal objects to the engine that it would breath twice as much air. Like any increase in torque you generate in the engine, the transmission and final drive have to be strong enough to cope with it. The transmission and final drive will only be strong enough to take a little more than the torque generated by the factory engine. If you shock-load the drivetrain then it will break. If you add torque gently and avoid full power in first gear then you will preserve the drivetrain. This method of power generation is a lot cheaper than adding all those attractive shiny metal parts with the exciting sounding names.




- - Up to the 1960s, the time at which the sparkplug fired during the stroke of the piston was set by adusting the rotating 'distributor' which timed the spark for each cylinder. You put the car on a rolling road, or drove it up a favorite hill and listened to the engine. If the engine started to detonate, then the spark was going off too early and the cylinder pressure was too high, causing the detonation. You then retarded the timing of the spark until the detonation just stopped.

- - Research in the late 1970s allowed engineers to determine that pre-ignition, (detonation) in the cylinder was not a single event but started as very small pockets of the fuel/air mixture detonating in areas of the cylinder where the pressure was highest or a particularly hot spot cause pre-ignition. Fuel/air in a cylinder actually burns rapidaly rather than explodes, much like the gunpowder within the chamber of a firearm. An explosion would cause a pressure rise which was a spark spike and the engine would be unable to convert that into 'push'. The explosion would damage or destroy the cylinder. When an engine starts to approach detonation conditions, small pockets of detonation start and spread just before the spark ignities the main charge. Within the cockpit, when you can hear the sudden detonation noises as slight metallic pings, such as their sudden 'spike' in pressure. As detonation increases these become louder. They will destroy the engine rapidly if not curtailed.

- - When fuel/air mixture is ignited within the cylinder, it does no so much as explode, but burn at a high rate. The flames start at the spark plug and spread outward in what would look like a fireball. Each piece of fuel/air mixture in turn waits for the burning flame-front to reach it and ignite it, producing a 'rolling barrage' of expanding gases. This produces and gentle increase in pressure over a longer time period. This means that the piston recieves a long, strong 'push' rather than a short sharp stab which an explosion would provide. Moreover, the explosion would be all over in too short a time period and the piston would receive no impetus in the later stage of its stroke. Igniting the fuel/air mixture in a really large cylinder, such as to be found in WWII aircraft engines can mean that the burning fuel/air fireball can take quite some time to spread through the entire cylinder. In cases such as this, the cylinder may be fitted with two or even three sparkplugs so that the fireball can be started in three different places at once.

- - The distinct noise, which is a sudden pressure-wave of the explosion can be detected by microphone-like devices called piezo-electric accelerometers. One is mounted above each cylinder. The sound, the sudden pressure wave of even the smallest pocket of detonation can be heard by the accelerometer before detonation becomes large enough that is audiable within the cockpit. With the digitally controlled ignitions which came in during the 1980s, information from the piezo-electric accelerometers could be fed into the computer which nudged the ignition timing back a little. Conversely, the ignition computer could take advantage of conditions which allowed for an earlier ignition timing and a higher cylinder pressure by gently nudging the ignition timing forward to set the charge off earlier.

- - This system was not only better at tuning the engine while it was running but could cope with conditions such as the driver filling the gasoline tank with the wrong gasoline: Low octane instead of high octane. #




- - The chemical process used during combustion is the combination of oxygen molecules from the air with carbon and hydrogen atoms which compose hydro-carbon fuels. Hydro-carbon fuels are composed of carbon chains which have hydrogen atoms arranged along them usually with two hydrogen atoms per carbon atom. The longer the carbon chain the thicker the fuel. Gasoline has carbon chains within it about eight carbon atoms in length (Octane) and longer. Shorter chains that that tend to be gaseous and not liquid (methane, propane, butane). A cylinder full of air will contain a set number of oxygen atoms and will therefore require a set number of carbon and hydrogen atoms to combine with the oxygen atoms during burning. If insufficient carbon and hydrogen atoms are present, then some oxygen will be unburnt. This is called 'lean'. The problem with that is the high temperatures in the cylinder mean that the oxygen is hot and keen to combine with anything it can find, even hot metal. The hottest part of the cylinder is the exhaust valve, followed by the top of the cylinder and it is these items that the hot oxygen molecule will combine with. If the engine runs lean for any length of time then it will eat at the exhaust valve and the top of they cylinder. If too many carbon and hydrogen atoms are introduced and all the oxygen burns away then some unburned fuel will remain. The heat in the cylinder will cause the carbon chains to decompose and you will see free carbon 'soot' develop. The exhaust will smoke and carbon may build up within the cylinder or foul the spark plugs. In a racing engine with a short unsilenced exhaust pipe, the unburned fuel may well ignite on contact with the outside air at the end of the exhaust pipe causing flames to come out of the exhaust.

- - Up until the late 1970s the only option for fuel metering was the carburettor. The problem with the carburettor was that it metered by volume of air rather than by mass of air. This meant that the carburettor would meter the same volume of fuel regardless of what air pressure was that day and regardless of what altitude the engine was at. This meant that the mixture could be rich or could be lean. #

- - The big advance in fuel metering came in the late Seventies with fuel injection. Control engineering in general took great leaps forward in the 1980s. One of the advances was the invention of a sensor which could detect how much air was coming through the intake and convert that into a signal which could be sent to a simple computer. The 'Mass Airflow Sensor' as it was called worked by heating a platinum plate or wire which was placed within the intake. The temperature of the wire had to be kept constant by a governer circuit. The more airflow to the engine, the more cooling to the wire, the more current the governer had to send to the wire to keep it at the set temperature. The computer could then read the quantity of current running through the governer and know exactly how much air was running through the intake. It took a set number of oxygen and nitrogen molecules to remove a set quantity of heat and a set quantity of electrical current to replace that heat. The computer controlled a solenoid fuel injector. The time the injector has held open by the electrical solenoid would determine how much fuel would flow into the intake from the high pressure fuel line.

- - - Fuel injection systems were more accurate than carburettors which meant that they both used less fuel and produced more power. One of those rare 'free lunches' in engineering. Better still, overcame a fundamental deficiency in carburetters. Atmosphereic air pressure varied with the weather. Calm dry weather brought high pressures and stormy weather brought low pressures. This meant that one unit of air (measured by volume) flowing through the carburetters might contain any number of oxygen and nitrogen molecules, depending on the air pressure. High pressure in a fixed volume contains more air than a lower pressure in a fixed volume. The size of an automobile tyre remains the same, even though you can push more and more air into it by increasing the pressure. The carburettor would only hand out the same unit of fuel for the same volume of air, regardless of how much pressure that volume contained. This meant that on a day of high pressure, the engine ran lean, and on a day of low pressure the engine ran rich. The carburettor dealt the same unit of fuel for the high-pressure air, which had more oxygen molecules in it, which would leave unburned oxygen, and dealt the same unit of fuel for the low-pressure air, which had less oxygen molecules in it, which would leave unburned fuel after all the oxygen had been used up. On racing cars the crew chief would adjust the carburettor on the day of the race so that whatever the air pressure was that day, the carburettor would give the correct quantity of fuel. On road-going passenger cars this was not possible. The new fuel-injection systems used Mass Air-flow Sensor which measured the quantity of molecules, not the volume of air. To remove one unit of heat, you needed one molecule. No molecule, no heat removal. The Mass Air-flow Sensor did not car what the air pressure was that day. Further more, as you climbed to high altitude in the mountains, where the air was at a lower pressure, then the Mas Air-Flow Sensor still did not care. One molecule of oxygen or nitrogen would remove one unit of heat. No molecule no heat removal. The broad sun-lit uplands of fuel metering had arrived.

- - Race engine tuners and aircraft engine developers found that if you ran the engine rich, with more fuel than could be burned, you would still get an increase in power. This turned out to be because the fuel being squirted into the intake would cool the intake charge by evaporation, which drew heat from the incoming air, causing it to contract. The engine would now draw more air. The unburned fuel would spew out of the cylinder and into the exhaust where it would burn as soon as it contacted the outside air. On aircraft this would produce a trail of flame from the exhaust stack. Aircraft usually had a mechanism within the cockpit whereby the pilot could alter the fuel mixture to make it richer of leaner. The lever had a setting for 'take-off' where the engine would be run very rich to produce as much power as possible. #


- - - Prior to the invention of the Mass Air-flow Sensor in the 1980s, there had been several attempts to produce a mechanical fuel-injection system for use on aircraft and latterly racing engines. In aircraft, such as the early model Spitfire, one of the problems was that as the aircraft dived, the small float-bowl of fuel on the carburettor which fed the metering needle which was in the intake would throw its fuel up into the 'ceiling' and stop feeding fuel to the intake, causing the engine to stumble. An effort was made to invent a mechanical fuel injection system. This was no simple matter. A system which allowed took into account all the conditions required needed a lot of mechanical sensors and from the first to the last mechanical fuel injection systems were complicated beasts and every one of them were very thirsty, even in comparison to thirsty carburetter setups, such as one Weber carburetter per-cylinder set-up used by Ferrari on their road cars and Ford on their GT40 engines. The basic component of mechanical fuel injection systems was a diesel-engine fuel injector. These contained one tiny piston for each cylinder on the engine. As the engine turned, it turned the fuel injector pump which injected one unit of fuel each time the cylinder required it. A race engine spent most of its time running flat out at wide-open-throttle, which simplified the task in hand. If the engine ran flat-out then the throttle was fully open and each time the cylinder drew in air it drew in a complete charge of air, which was a known quantity. With a known quantity of air, the injector pump could be set so that each tiny piston stroke fed the correct quantity of fuel. The mechanical fuel injection system only required the addition of some sort of circuitry which would allow the engine to run at idle, with the throttle closed, to become a crude but working system. Obviously, part-throttle running would not work very well with such a crude system, but race engines did not run at part throttle very often. Road-going passenger cars did , however, which meant that mechanical fuel injection systems never appeared on production road cars. Mechanical fuel injection systems were also used on later-war fighter aircraft engines but again, they consumed more fuel, were less economical. Multi-port fuel injection was the most thirsty in this respect. The fuel was injected close to each cyclinder and the fuel droplets did not have much time to evaporate into a combustable mixture. Liquid fuel will not ignite. It needs to be mixed with oxygen. Some fuel injection systems used a single-point of injection at the start of the intake system, which could be a considerable distance away in an engine with a two-stage centrifugal supercharger. This allowed plenty of time for the fuel droplets to evaporate, not least because they would would be swirled around in the supercharger. This system was more economical on fuel.






- The fuel system on motorcycles consists of a reserve cylinder of one liter of fuel. When the main tank runs dry, you open the tap on the reserve and the extra liter gives you enough range to find a gas station. The engine stumbles a little while the float-bowls refill. On fuel injected engines the engine will pulse more markedly when starved of fuel. Some automobiles used to have this system until around the 1950s, with a reserve as much as a gallon.


- This system I prefer because it is impossible to invent a fuel gauge sender which tells you how much fuel is in the tank. Furthermore, most tank gauges are approximate and some will have plenty of fuel in them after the needle points to empty. Although my first Mustang would stop the moment the needle hit 'E'. When driving long distances, you can maximize range by running the main tank dry and then switching to the reserve gallon while you find a gas station.

- 1970s F1 cars had a fuel meter which read off the number of liters of fuel which the engine had consumed. If you know the number of liters of fuel which the tank, fuel line and filler tube will hold then you know to within a few liters when you will run dry. Personally I would prefer several fuel meters, one of which read a count-up, and one of which can be reset to a specific number in order to count down to zero. The rotating drum odometer style read-out is my preference.








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G - Gustav






- Gearbox ; Materials ;

- - 9310 steel ; Used in helicopter gearboxes and Lenco transmissions for Top Fuel.



Spur gears
Driver selected
Spur gears
Driver selected (race driver)
Dog - computer actuator
Spur gears
Actuator solenoid
Computer selected (driver override)
Twin-clutch Porsche PDK
Actuator solenoid
Computer selected (driver override)
Actuator solenoid / servo
Electro-mechanical computer Pre-1990-Post-1990 digital computer
Manual / Compressed air piston
Driver selected




Power Transmission: Unsynchronised/Crash Synchronised Planetary + Clutch Torque Converter + Planetary      


Power Transmission Method   Control of Gear Engagement Actuation of gear Engagement Examples Manufactured Used in vehicles Application of Gearbox  

Clutch plate +

Unsynchronised spur gears



Gear selected by driver

Manual Actuation via lever The original gearbox All early vehicles

All early vehicles "crash box"

Cite as:


Clutch plate +

Constant Mesh Synchronised spur gears - Cone Clutch + Dog



Gear selected by driver

Manual Actuation via lever   Gradual introduction post-war

Most modern passenger cars with "manual transmissions" aka "stick shift"

Cite as:


Clutch plate +

Constant Mesh Synchronised Spur Gears -

No Cone Clutch - Dog with Face engagement

  Gear selected by driver Manual Actuation via lever



Pro Stock

Drag racing cars

Circuit racing cars

Cite as:


Clutch plate +

Constant Mesh Synchronised spur gears - Cone Clutch + Dog



Gear selected by driver
Automatic Control

'H' pattern or sequential

Power Actuation by hydraulic power  


Ferrari F355 F1
Maserati Cambiocorso

Alfa Romeo Selespeed


Toyota SMT

Cite as:  

Clutch Plate +

Planetary Gears engaged by clutch pack


Gear selected by driver
Automatic Control



Manual actuation via lever


Power Actuation via compressed air


Top Fuel

Funny Cars


Drag Racing

Cite as:


Twin Clutch +

two shafts of Constant mesh Synchromesh gears + Cone clutch + Dog clutch

  Gear selected by driver
Automatic Control
Power Actuation via hydraulic power


Porsche PDK

Ferrari California
Ferrari 458 Italia

Racing cars and sports cars

Cite as:


Torque converter +

Planetary gears + clutch pack

  Gear selected by driver
Automatic Control
Power Actuation via solenoid, vacuum or hydraulic power

GM Turbo-Hydro 400, 350

Ford C6, C4

Porsche Tiptronic

Most passenger Automobile "automatic transmissions"



aka "slush box"

Some off-highway trucks


Cite as:


Torque converter +

Constant mesh Synchromesh

  Gear selected by driver
Automatic Control

Drag Racing

Cite as:



Jericho Racing




- Torque Converter: Application: Drag racing :#




- The pleasure from driving an automobile, especially when you are alone and there is just you and the road, is that the car is an extension of your will. It's like dancing. You and the automobile are one. It's every movement, it's every adjustment in position, in attitude, is controlled by you as if it were part of your body. Something which has a mind of its own is not an extension of your will. Ergo 'automatic' gearboxes are for imbeciles.#

- The sudden arrival of machine-shifted dog-tooth gearboxes to replace manually shifted synchromesh gearboxes seemed to come because it allowed a new marketing angle. Machine-shifted dog-tooth gearboxes were used in Formula 1, where tiny fractional advantages could give the tenths of a second which would bring victory. There is nearly nothing in Formula 1 which is not a powerful marketing tool and it is perhaps from this that assured the progress of the the machine-shifted dog-tooth, with attendant computer control, from race track to road cars. This was not a positive development.



- The whole point of road driving is that the car is an extension of you. The point of skiing (although not necessarily ski-racing) is that the skis are an extension of you. You have only to will it for it to be so. A car, an item of equipment which is not an extension of your will is no pleasure. If you have to look down at some buttons or a screen and 'wonder what it is doing now' then the equipment is no longer an extension of you. You are merely a passenger. A passenger in a vehicle which you neither understand nor control. A gearbox, any kind of gearbox, which has a mind of its own, reduces or eliminates the effect of a car being an extension of you. Secondly, gearboxes do not have eyesight nor are they prescient. As an accomplished driver you have both of these things. You can select the appropriate gear for what is going to happen rather than what is happening. You can. # There are several gearboxes which fall into this category but ALSO MANUAL CLUTCH CONTROL . To an extent, even 4x4 drive-trains reduce the utility of the car as an extension of the self, in that it is much more difficult to alter the trim of the car because you cannot steer with the rear wheels like you can with a rear-wheel drive car.

Full range: Spur gears, planetary gears, hydraulic torque converter
All gearbox manufacturers
Typical passenger car gearboxes
circa 600ft/lbs
Spur gears with dogs. Synchromesh available
Can-Am, Present crop of after-market gearbox manufacturers.
Spur gears with dogs. Synchromesh available
Porsche 917 OEM
The vacant lot. No-one makes gearboxes to flow this much torque, between 600ft/lbs and the Lenco, at arouond 10,000HP.
Planetary Steel alloy 9130 un-heat-treated
Drag cars, Top Fuel and Funny cars
<2000 ft/lbs
Spur gears, synchromesh
Mack 'Maxi-Torque'
Largest of the road haulage gearboxes.
>2000 ft/lbs
planetary + torque converter
Oversize load, open-cast mining, oilfield
>2000 ft/lbs -> locomotives -> ships
GM-EMD, Caterpillar
Diesel-electric locomotives & Open-cast mining tippers



Synchomesh gears showing dog teeth engagement face
Gears from a dog teeth engagement gearbox usually used in racing


- GEARBOX ; Dog ;

- - In a normal synchromesh gearbox #

- - G Force Gearboxes Link - G Force Gearboxes - Dog Teeth


- GEARBOX ; Shifter ;

- - Shifter Design: All of the controls of the car should act as a direct extension of you and to this end they must appear to be seamless. Great attention to the shifter mechanism must be paid. The shifter gate and levers must all work without catching. Larger gears with heavy synchros are never going to be as light as a gearbox on a one liter engine but that can be overcome with muscle. What cannot be overcome with muscle is a gate which is not smooth or which catches the lever if it is 'slashed' diagonally from fifth to fourth during a down-change. I had gearbox shifter which would catch here, which was the worst possible moment. As I came to the corner I had to monitor the speed of the car by changing through fourth into third. That was the only way I could feel the speed the car and know that as I came to the corner, I did not have to much speed on. I could have braked into third gear but it would have been too late if I had discovered I was at the wrong speed. This was in road driving not in track driving so there was only one chance to get it right.


- GEARBOX ; Shifter ; Hurst # ;









- Gibbs Quadski crossing the Italian Lakes





Military Goggles
In the above photograph, various wartime and pre-war goggles from a number of nations.


In the above photograph top to bottom:

Soviet 1940s design. Much of Soviet design was a copy of Allied or German equipment. Soviet cockpit interiors were all Luftwaffe pattern, down to the plugs and connectors. These particular goggles would have been made in perhaps the Sixties. They are glass and not acrylic or perspex. The Soviets were slow to gain plastics technology.

Soviet 1970s Tanker Goggles: Two rubber halves with perspex lenses. Tankers need goggles to keep dust out of their eyes when traveling in formation across dry country. Desert manoeuvrers are almost impossible without them.

Italian 1930s: Pre-war automobile racing goggles by Ratti Link - Persol Sunglasses, makers of the Persol sunglasses favored by Steve McQueen. There are many pit-lane photographs of inter-war Grand Prix drivers which help in identifying motor racing goggles.

Luftwaffe 1930s: Width adjustment is via a small screw and lever between the two lenses.

Italian 1930s: Made by Ratti Link - Persol Sunglasses of Torino, but unmarked.

1940s R.A.F. MkVIII goggles: The classic aviator goggle with the split-lens. Produced too late for the Battle of Britain but remained in service until the advent of full-face helmets. Surplused after the war, racing car drivers, motorcyclists and aviators used them. So popular that they are still in production. You can find wartime MkVIII with both clear lenses and tinted lenses.

Luftwaffe googles inserts
Inserts for Luftwaffe aviators goggles.




+ GRAND TOUR ; The Grand Tour, Amazon Original, by Clarkson Hammond and May

The Grand Tour Logo Amazon Original Clarkson Hammand and May




GT Man Helvetica Neu LT Standard - 197 Extra Black Condensed  Oblique


+ GT Man

- GT Man. GT Man is the Apex Predator. The Alpha Male. A Man among Men. He pilots his GT car across Europe. From an assignation with a Countess in St Moritz, to a Bullfight in Madrid via a night at the Casino in Monte Carlo. From a meeting with ambassadors and ministers at a French Chateau to a yacht off Capri.
   GT Man wears sunglasses with perforated metal stems. He's nearly always in evening dress, sometimes a dark three-piece suit from his tailor on Saville Row, together with a Fedora. He smokes unfiltered cigarettes from a short ebony cigarette holder.
   Men defer to him. Women admire him. Maitre d'Hôtel recognise him and ensure he receives the best table. Croupier address him by his first name. He is: GT Man.







A Ä B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Ö P Q R S ß T U Ü V W X Y Z



H - Heinrich







- HELMET ; Motorcycle ;

- HELMET ; Motorcycle ; Hells Angels ;

- - If you are looking for a WWII German Army helmet to chrome then in the 1960s you could find them surplus for not unreasonable cost. By the 1980s they were far too expensive to destroy in that manner. The Spanish Army under Franco used the Wehrmacht pattern helmet for the duration of the Franco regime and they are worthless compared to original German WWII. You would see them at militaria shows but with the advent of the internet you can find them on-line. A second source would be Bundeswehr police, who used them as their SWAT helmet until the demise of the FRG (You can see them in the 1972 Munich Olympics Crisis). Period helmets may not be legal in some jurisdictions at time of writing (2015).


- HELMET ; Motor-racing ;

- Buco

- Bell

- Les Leston

- Stadium

- #

- #

- #

- #


- Helmets ; Period Helmets by Stradale

- - Period helmets, goggles, racing apparal, cockpit accessories like chronographs.



- Heuer Race Timing



- Holman-Moody Wikipedia - Holman Moody

John Holman of Holman_Moody circa late Sixties
John Holman poses with a huge delivery of Ford SOHC engines. Even the interior of Fort Knox in Goldfinger (1964) did not look this good.

The Holman-Moody workshops circa mid Sixties


+ Horns ; Automotive horns ; See





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I - Ida



+ Irvin Wikipedia - Leslie Irvin Link - Irvin Link - Eastman Leather : Flight jackets. Wikipedia - Flight Jackets




- Stewart-Warner Wikipedia - Stewart Warner Instruments




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J - Juda




- God's gifts to trucking have been the turbocharger and the Jake Brake Wikipedia - Link -




A Ä B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Ö P Q R S ß T U Ü V W X Y Z



K - Konrad





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L - Ludwig



+ Le Mans (1971)


+ LICENSE PLATES Wikipedia - License plates; registration plates number plates

- Link - La Malle Pour Tous La Malle Pour Tous - Accessories Auto

Accesoires Autos La Malle Pour Tous - License plates made to order, any country, any style, any size, voiture, moto
'La Malle Pour Tous' License plates made to order, any country and style, any size, automobile or motorcycle.

-- A splendid shop which will make you any license plate you want, any material, any period any letter/number. Automobile, motorcycle or moto. The motorcycle size plates are particularly useful for mounting on the front of mid-engine sports cars.

French license plates 4711 EA 62
The French license plates on the Aston Martin DB5 4711 EA 62


Aston Martin DB5 with Swiss license plates LU 6789
Aston Martin DB5 showing Swiss license plates LU 6789


Aston Martin DB5 showing English license plates BMT 216 A
Aston Martin DB5 showing English license plates BMT 216 A


- Registration Plates of the World by Neil Parker, John Weeks, Reg Wilson published by Europlate. ISBN 0 0502735 5 4

The definitive reference work and a monumental act of scholarship. The book is 45mm thick.

Registration Plates of the World - Parker and Weeks


- Link - Cactus 2000 license plates - License plates in Europe


Aston Martin DB5
Aston Martin DB5 BMT 216 A (1964)




+ LOCTITE ; Loctite FAQ ;



- Grease # ;

- Cosmolene # ;

- Oil # ;


+ De-Greaser

- Tri-Chloromethane





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M - Martha




- The magneto is like a distributor which generates its own electricity. Magnetos were common until the 1950s. They are used on race cars which have no battery (Top Fuel, Funny Cars, other rails). Magnetos used to be preferred because they generated a larger spark but modern ignition systems have caught up. The only reason you would fit a magneto these days is because they look so damn good. Lifting the hood and seeing a magneto is a lot more exciting than seeing a black box.



- Mahle ; Kolben.





Marchal Headlights

Reproduction and restored Marchals are produced by

Marchal sponsorship on a Ferrari 512
Marchal sponsorship on a Ferrari 512 circa 1970





- #

- Connecting Rod ; #

- Connecting Rod Bolts ; #

- Crankcase #

- Cylinder Head Studs ; #

- Engine Block ; #

- #

- Gearbox ; #

- #

- #

- #

- Piston #

- #

- Valve - Exhaust ; #

- Valve - Intake ; #

- Valve - Seat #

- #




+ Motorcycle ; Multi-surface; CARL, Elden ;





- BOSS 429 ".... you could go through a set of back tyres in a day ...." #



+ MITTELEUROPA ; Projects ;

- Projects I would undertake given enough time and resources ;

- - Engine Block ; Centrifugal Castings ;

- - - There is nothing wrong with sand castings when done by an expert. However, centifugal castings would offer a superior casting. Centifugal casting something the size of an engine block is no small task. First, you would require steel dies in the same manner you would if you were die-casting aluminum engine blocks. The 1970s Honda CX500 V-twin had a die-cast block but it required a large 2000ton pressure machine. 800ton and 400ton machines were normal for most aluminum die-cast products (such as alternator caps). If I remember, Renault tried a 4-cylinder engine as aluminum die-cast in the late 1970s. The steel die would not need to be highly detailed because the resulting block will undergo a lot of machining. The advantage of steel dies is that the dimensions and alignments are accurate and consistent.

- - - Secondly you would require a centifuge large enough to hold two of the steel dies in order to balance the rotating assembly. Each steel dies would be in two halves each appreciably larger than the largest size of suitcase. The centrifuge arm would have to be strong because of the combined weight of the dies and the molten aluminum. Maraging steel, which has a high tensile strength, is used for the centrifuge arms in centrifuge refining of uranium oxide which separates uranium 235 from 236 and 238. Maraging steel is am embargoed export for this reason.

- - - The centrifuge would have to be built in a circular pit, with a steel surround, in order to absorb any accidents. High speed steel fragments and molten aluminum would create impressive damage.

- - - MACHINING: With the cast block the next stage would be machining. Nowadays there are CNC machinging centers which will machine an entire engine block from a computer program. The block remains submerged in oil in order to remain at a constant even temperature. You have to stress-relieve a block throughout the machining process to ensure that any residual stresses in the block are removed. If you did not, the block might change shape just after you have finished machining it and thus would jump out of tolerance and have to be scrapped. Giant castings such as the ones which are used to construct machine tools have to be aged for several years in the yard before they can be machined. This was one of the problems with machine-tool production during the Great War, where a sudden increase in demand ten-fold , could not be met because of the long lead times on machinery. Stress relief consists of either of heating the block and letting it cool or use of one of the modern vibration inducing stress-relief machines which make the object resonate at its resonant frequency. Likely I would use both of these methods. One of the determinants of power production is bore concentricity. Bores have to remain concentric during the life of the engine. An engine block which has been used in a taxi for 100,000 miles will be completely stress relieved and will maintain any bore concentricity machined into it after this.

- - - STRESS RELIEVING: When machining, you start by giving the block its rough dimensions. This is to ensure that any residual stress in the block has a chance to come out. Then you gradually approach the final dimensions, stress-releiving the block as you go. After each machinging session, the block has a trip to the metrology lab to be measured exactly. This will tell you how far you have to go to reach the dimension on the drawing. If after you have finished the block, it suddenly goes undersize on a dimension because of some unrelieved stress in the block, then it is scrap and goes back into the melt.

- - - Much like in farming, the way to make a small fortune in the race car construction business is to start with a large one. I would operate the engine block factory at break-even (incorporate as a non-profit) and then produce blocks such as the Ford FE 427 side-oiler, the Ford 385 BOSS 429, the Chrysler Hemi, and any other blocks the industry required. I would sell the blocks at cost to constructors for machinging into finished products. The general objective is to keep the industry as a whole turning over and to ensure that the skill base required is kept profitable and operational. You can produce engine blocks from a forged billet instead of a casting. All Top Fuel blocks are manufactured this way. Forging a slab of metal that size is not a trivial exersize and is a similar size of endeavour to the centrifugal casting described above. There would be less machinging involved than in a forged block but exactly which was cheaper would be a matter of detail. It may be cheaper to just forge large V8 blanks in aluminum and let the C-n-C milling machine manufacture the block you desire: Ford, Chrysler or GM.

- - - FORGED VS CAST: The reason Top Fuel blocks are forged and not cast is because a forged block is better at containing explosions and catastrophic breakage of pistons, connecting rods and crankshafts. This is safer for everyone including the driver. Furthermore a forged block can be repaired by welding and put straight back into service. In terms of power production there is no difference between a forged block and cast block. Both a strong enough to survive the generation of 8000HP in a Top Fuel engine so both types of engine block work.

- - - Ironically, Detriot big-blocks were designed in the 1940s and 1950s, with the Ford 385 series BOSS 429 the last to be designed in the late Sixties. Furthermore they were designed to be produced on the tooling in the production lines at the time. This means that we are using ancient push-rod designs. The Chyrsler Hemi was a 1940s wartime design which was part of an experimental aircraft engine program. Once Mitteleuropa was producing engine blocks and blanks then there is no obstacle to producing a new engine purpose designed for race car use. The Mittleuropa engine would look like the Cosworth DFV (4 overhead cams driven by gears with accessory drives running alongside the crankshaft outside the block) but at around >500ci. (Eagle Racing in the 1980s produced overhead cam heads for the Chrysler Hemi). The problem is that there is a huge industry built up supplying parts and services for the Detroit Big-Block designs but this could be overcome. Custom non-factory parts are already produced for various specialist operations so they would have no problem supplying parts for the Mitteleuropa V8.

- - - Detroit push-rod V8s regularly reach red lines of 8500rpm so there is nothing extra which a quad overhead cam will give you, other than less machinery on board. The velocity of some valvetrain components in pushrod Nascar V8 exceed that of Formula 1 for instance. If pushrod valve actuation did not work, we would know about it by now. The cylinder does not care who or what opened the valve so long as the cylinder fills with air/fuel mixture. That is what gives the power. Thus the 'below the gasket', the Mitteleuropa V8 would give the same power as any other pushrod V8 of the same volume.

- - - In terms of size, bored and stroked Detroit Big-Blocks will give around 650ci. In factory built sheet metal cars, the limit on engine size is where the edge of the cylinder head and valve-cover will contact the upper part of the shock tower in the engine bay. Once you build a car with suspension all below the 'V' on the engine then this limit can be exceeded until the top of the valve cover starts to reach the limit of the hood. With a dry-sump engine, the engine can be mounted perhaps four inches lower because of the absence of the 'bath tub' sump on the bottom. This will give four inches more clearance up top. That could be around 906ci / 15 liters.



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N - Nordpol



+ NEUBAUER ; Alfed Neubauer ;

- Mercedes-Benz motor-racing supremo for the whole of Mercedes-Benz Grand Prix history.

- - Neubauer Cocktail ;



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O - Otto




- Race-cars frequently have dry-sump lubrication. Normally, road-going passenger cars have a large box-like sump under the engine into which all the lubricating oil collects. The pick-up for the oil pump would be mounted close to the bottom surface of the sump. Nearer the surface the oil might be foamy. When the engine is running hard, the oil flies out of the bearings and sprays around looking like dirty whipped cream. A dry-sump uses four extractor pumps, with pick-ups one at each corner of the sump, which pull the oil from the sump and pipe it into an upright cylinder where it is centrifuged. The combustion gases which are mixed with the oil are vented up the center of the centrifuge and the oil drains down into the pick-up for the pressure stage of the oil pump where it is pumped back into the engine. A dry sump is much smaller then a we sump and is above all much flatter, with barely enough clearance for the crank counter-weights. This means that the engine can be mounted perhaps four inches lower in the chassis, giving a much lower center of gravity. Furthermore, in a wet-sump engine, during sustained cornering the oil will run away from the pick-up and the engine will be starved of oil. Advances in tire rubber technology in the 1990s meant that original GT40s running in the historic Le Mans race were using tires which with more grip than they used in the original races. One of the drivers noticed that the oil pressure gauge was starting to read low in the longer corners. #



- OILS ; Racing ;

- - Racing oils tend have differences to oils used in road-going engines.

- - Racing oils are changed frequently, often after every race, and so they do not require the anti-oxidation additives which refiners add to road-going oils. These additives produce ash which may affect horsepower production or may congregate on the face of the exhaust valve. Hence 'ashless' oils are usually for racing.

- - Race car engines are left to warm-up in the pits so they do not get a cold start on a winter's morning and then get pushed hard to commute to the office. This means that racing oils can be a straight weight rather than a multigrade. A racing oil can be composed so that it works best under high heat loads, which is where it will spend most of its time. You sometimes see straight 50 weight racing oils or straight 60 weight. For the road, a mutli-grade oil protects the engine over a greater variety of temperatures and viscosity. In a sports car you can afford to choose a multi-grade oil with a high top range (15-50, or 5-50 as opposed to 0-40 or 15-40) because if you drive on a weekend then you can afford to let it warm up before you pull away, unlike a car used for going to work.

- - Oils in road-going cars need to last for six months or ideally twelve months, which means that they need to be resistant to oxidation. Mineral oils usually lasted about six months but the new synthetic oils which came in the Nineties will last for twelve months. I have had synthetic oils come out of sports cars after twelve months and still be golden. They were in good enough condition to be used in my ordinary utility vehicles.

- - - Racing oils would be an ashless straight 50 weight or straight 60 weight.

- - - Road going oils would be a multi-grade 5-50 or 15-50 with additives which prevent oxidation and prolong the life of the oil.

- - Oil tends to oxidise to break down when acids form. Acids form when residual sulphur in the fuel reacts with hot oxygen to form sulphur dioxide which then combines with water moisture or steam to form sulphuric acid. Exhaust gases contain hot sulphuric acid which is one of the reasons the exhaust tubing and muffler become eaten away. When the engine shuts down and cools down, the steam condences and the sulphuric acid forms. This then attacks the oil. There have been engines which had too much cooling on the lower part of the cylinder which meant that the exhaust gases started to condense on the metal and the sulphuric acid ate away the lower cylinder. Not normally a section which wears. This means that the rate at which you oil degradee is proportional to the number of times the engine is shut down and left to cool. There have been patrol vehicles which were handed to the next shift still running. They worked three shifts around the clock and were never shut down. The oil in those engines remained in tip-top condition because the water vapor never formed. #



- OILS ;

- OILS ; Mobil 1 #





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Ö - Ödipus





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P - Paula




You might benefit from the use of pacenotes Wikipedia - Pacenotes if you are undertaking a lot of driving and visiting a lot of locations.

- Link -

- Link -

Rally navigators read from a description of the route which uses symbols to indicate corners, braking, fast straights and hazards.

Pacenotes were invented by the late Denis Jenkinson Wikipedia - Denis Jenkinson, who was Sterling Moss's navigator on the 1955 Mille Miglia race. Jenkinson used a specially constructed aluminum box containing a pace note reader which scrolled a reel of pace notes in front of Jenkinson for him to read out. This was essential at the speed which Moss was driving and also because of the length of the route. Sir Sterling Moss still has the aluminum pacenote reader.


Denis Jenkinson observing the testing of a Porsche 917

Denis Jenkinson Wikipedia - Denis Jenkinson (far right) observing the testing of a Porsche 917 Wikipedia - July 1972 at Weissach Wikipedia - , the Porsche Factory testing grounds.


Example of Pacenotes

A couple of examples of pacenotes

Example of Pacenotes

Paris-Dakar - Claude Brasseur's pace notes
The Paris-Dakar 1984 Wikipedia - Link - : Jacky Ickx's Wikipedia - navigator Claude Brasseur check's his pacenotes.


- Link - Dakar Blogspot - Routebook - Paris-Dakar pacenotes and road book


Audi Quattro S1 co-driver Ihlse's pacenotes
Überrennmeister Walter Rohrl's Wikipedia - navigator Wolf-Dieter Ihle checks his pacenotes while sitting on his Audi Quattro S1




- Approach Notes are used by pilots in order to direct the aircraft to the location from where an approach to the airfield in question is situated, and thus Final Approach. Approach notes are used by mountaineers to help them overcome the significant obstacles on the journey to the start of the climb. Some approaches are a Hell in themselves: Terrifying steep gulleys filled with fallen timber and covered in snow, threatening to land-slide at any moment. The concept of approach notes in just about any geographic endeavor is an important one, even if it is just attending a dinner party. Knowing the Latitude and Longitude of the target will tell you exactly where the target is, but the value in any directions or maps will be in the approach. As you take-off, your immediate course and heading will be determined by the directions in the Approach Notes.

- Graphic: Approach Notes should be similar to pace notes in that they should be large and graphic with illustrated land-marks, if only so the driver can read them while driving at speed.

- Gone-Too-Far & Last-Known-Good: Add a description of what you will see if you have gone too far and over-shot. Then directions for how to return and where to pick up the route and Final Approach.

"You've never been lost until you have been lost at Mach 3" - Pilot of a Lockheed SR-71




Hells Angels by Hunter S. Thompson: (included in The Great Shark Hunt

   Months later, when I rarely saw the Angels, I still had the legacy of the big machine -- four hundred pounds of chrome and deep red noise to take out on the Coast Highway and cut loose at three in the morning, when all the cops were lurking over on 101. My first crash had wrecked the bike completely and it took several months to have it rebuilt. After that I decided to ride it differently: I would stop pushing my luck on curves, always wear a helmet and try to keep within range of the nearest speed limit. . . my insurance had already been canceled and my driver's license was hanging by a thread.
   So it was always at night, like a werewolf, that I would take the thing out for an honest run down the coast. I would start in Golden Gate Park, thinking only to run a few long curves to clear my head. . . but in a matter of minutes I'd be out at the beach with the sound of the engine in my ears, the surf booming up on the sea wall and a fine empty road stretching all the way down to Santa Cruz. . . not even a gas station in the whole seventy miles; the only public light along the way is an all-night diner down around Rockaway Beach.
   There was no helmet on those nights, no speed limit, and no cooling it down on the curves. The momentary freedom of the park was like the one unlucky drink that shoves a wavering alcoholic off the wagon. I would come out of the park near the soccer field and pause for a moment at the stop sign, wondering if I knew anyone parked out there on the midnight humping strip.
   Then into first gear, forgetting the cars and letting the beast wind out. . . thirty-five, forty-five. . . then into second and wailing through the light at Lincoln Way, not worried about green or red signals, but only some other werewolf loony-who might be pulling out, too slowly, to start his own run. Not many of these. . . and with three lanes on a wide curve, a bike coming hard has plenty of room to get around almost anything. . . then into third, the boomer gear, pushing seventy-five and the beginning of a windscream in the ears, a pressure on the eyeballs like diving into water off a high board.
   Bent forward, far back on the seat, and a rigid grip on the handlebars as the bike starts jumping and wavering in the wind. Taillights far up ahead coming closer, faster, and suddenly -- zaaapppp -- going past and leaning down for a curve near the zoo, where the road swings out to sea.
   The dunes are flatter here, and on windy nights sand blows across the highway, piling up in thick drifts as deadly as any oil-slick. . . instant loss of control, a crashing, cartwheeling slide and maybe one of those two-inch notices in the paper the next day: "An unidentified motorcyclist was killed last night when he failed to negotiate a turn on Highway I.
   Indeed. . . but no sand this time, so the lever goes up into fourth, and now there's no sound except wind. Screw it all the way over, reach through the handlebars to raise the headlight beam, the needle leans down on a hundred, and wind-burned eyeballs strain to see down the centerline, trying to provide a margin for the reflexes.
   But with the throttle screwed on there is only the barest margin, and no room at all for mistakes. It has to be done right. . . and that's when the strange music starts, when you stretch your luck so far that fear becomes exhilaration and vibrates along your arms. You can barely see at a hundred; the tears blow back so fast that they vaporize before they get to your ears. The only sounds are wind and a dull roar floating back from the mufflers. You watch the white line and try to lean with it. . . howling through a turn to the right, then to the left and down the long hill to Pacifica. . . letting off now, watching for cops, but only until the next dark stretch and another few seconds on the edge. . . The Edge. . . There is no honest way to explain it because the only people who really know where it is are the ones who have gone over. The others -- the living -- are those who pushed their control as far as they felt they could handle it, and then pulled back, or slowed down, or did whatever they had to when it came time to choose between Now and Later.
   But the edge is still Out there. Or maybe it's In. The association of motorcycles with LSD is no accident of publicity. They are both a means to an end, to the place of definitions.



+ Parking: Great moments in Parking History.

- For style: Bullitt

- For Speed, first prize : The Blues Brothers

- For Speed, second prize: Taxi 2




- #






- - Pistons in diesel engines are steel but in gasoline engines are aluminum. Typically diesel engines

- - - Have to remain in service for multiples of hundreds of thousands of miles.

- - - Do not develop high RPM and must develop their torque at lower RPM

- - This means a strong piston which is impervious to heavy loads at high temperatures. Diesel pistons are large and have a full skirt which reaches below the wrist pin and another set of rings below the wrist pin which hold the piston square in the bore. That is a great way to design pistons but they are heavy and in a gasoline engine the objetive is to make the piston as light as possible

- - Pistons in gasoline engines are aluminum in order to be as light as possible. In a race engine where you can afford to have high wear and a short life on the piston, the skirt is cut away to the minimum. Just enough bearing surface where they piston skirt touches perpendicular to the wrist-pin axis. The top ring seals the expanding gases in the bore thus you must have a top ring. The lowermost ring is the oil control ring thus you must ahve one of these. The central ring or rings hold the piston in the bore. Race engine piston designers try to get away with one ring here in order to minimise friction. Race rules typically limit cubic capacity (and started doing so in the 1930s) so engine builders have been on a quest for higher RPM since that date: On paper, a 5 liter engine turning at twice the rate pumps twice the air. That means they require lighter pistons. Turning a reciprocating engine over beyond a certain RPM is moving the system away from its sweet spot and if you are building a no-rules road engine then you can used forced induction to increase cubic capacity and cfm and stop having to turn the engine over so quickly. This means you can afford a more sensible design of piston, which, on a supercharged engine you are going to need.



- Piston ; Cast versus Forged ;

- Most passenger cars used aluminum pistons cast from an aluminum silicon alloy termed 'eutectic', which contains about twelve percent silicon. Racing car engines required forged aluminum pistons, which used an aluminum alloy suitable for forgings. Forged pistons could transmit more force and were tougher at a higher temperature.


- - The problem with forged pistons in a production car was that they expanded and contracted to a greater degree than cast pistons because of the grain flow in the alloy shaped by the forging process. This meant that the pistons clattered in the cylinder when cold. Not a problem with a race car but a serious problem in an expensive luxury car. Mercedes-Benz and BMW solved this problem with the development of a new forging alloy (14% Silicon) which allowed them to use forged pistons in the V8 and V12 engines.


- - Forged components are usually stronger than cast components, but one of the interesting differences between cast hypereutectic pistons and forged pistons is that in some instances the cast hypereutectic pistons make more power. Once the engine is at operating temperature on the test bench, a piston that is exactly the right size, be it a cast piston or a forged piston, should make exactly the same horsepower in the engine. However, during development of the Chyrsler SRT Viper the engineers found that cast hypereutectic pistons made more power than forged pistons. Forged pistons flow heat away better than cast pistons because of the grain flow in the forged alloy. In a race engine, if you can keep the piston top cooler you can re-tune the engine to run hotter. In these days of black boxes, the computer which controls ignition timing can listen to the engine through the piezo-electric accelerometers mounted over each cylinder head and detect the onset of detonation. Small pockets of detonation occur long before there is detonation loud enough to be heard by the driver. This means that the ignition system can continually advance the ignition until it reaches the onset of detonation. Advancing the ignition generates more power. This is a lot better than setting the ignition timing once every six months like you did in the Sixties. Experiments have been undertaken with a pressed stainless steel piston cap, which is then glued to the aluminum piston below. I do not know the results but I imagine that at the time, the glue would not stand up to the conditions within a race engine. Further more, the different expansion rates between stainless steel and aluminum would mean that piston-to-cylinder fit was difficult to control. The top of the piston would, however, be able to be run much hotter. One of the facilities which you do not see on Detroit V8s is oil spray cooling on the underside of the piston to decrease piston temperature. This was first introduced by motorcycle manufacturers in the mid Seventies and is in use throughout racing engines. In theory, the forged pistons should make more power because they remain cooler and do not develop the tiny hotspots which become hot enough to cause detonation. However, on the controlled conditions of Chrysler's test stand, this was not the case. The cast hypereutectic pistons made more power. The manufacturer was Mahle, for both pistons. Europe's premier maker of pistons. This left something of a mystery because it seemed that the cast hypereutectic pistons were sealing better than the forged pistons. This suggested that the cause may be something to do with less dimensional change in the area near the top-ring in the cast pistons. One experiment I wish they had undertaken was a 'squashed' piston instead of a forged piston. When the piston is forged, it is forged into a cup shape. It may be possible to forge the piston as a button, with the blank just being squashed, so that the grain flow does not bend around into the skirt. Only a run on a test stand will tell if there is a difference. When building a race engine I would, likely, remain with forged pistons. But if I was building a car to run on the street with only an annual tear-down, then I might fit cast hypereutectic pistons in order to add a few more horsepower and enjoy better sealing when the engine is running at lower temperatures.


- - In production car engines, research started in the Sixties found that the distance between the top ring and the head of the piston was a contributor to emissions. The fireball could not burn any gases lodged in this little crack between the edge of the piston head and the cylinder wall. Production car manufacturers attempted to place the top ring as close to the surface of the piston as possible in order to minimise the volume of this gap. In race car engines, when you move the top ring close to the top of the piston, this creates a thinner lip which heats up more quickly and is less strong when it does so. This means that this lip on the piston is prone to failure and disintegration, which ejects pieces of piston into the cylinder. In Top Fuel cars you can sometimes see and occasional red spark flying out of exhaust, which is usually a piece of piston top or possibly a piece of exhaust valve. In race engines this lip between the top ring and the surface of the piston has to be generous in order to be strong enough to resist heat build up. On some pistons it is huge. Some 1970s F1 engines had something like a 8mm lip between the top of the piston and the top ring. Traditionally, a piston will have a top ring, which seals expanding gas within the cylinder, then several thicker rings which hold the piston in the cylinder, then last of all an oil control ring which scrapes excess oil off the cylinder wall to stop it entering the cylinder and reducing horsepower. All these rings create friction and in a race engine you need to reduce friction as must as possible to increase power output. The top ring and the oil control ring are here to stay therefore the economy will be had on the middle rings which control the piston in the bore. Diesel engines even have their lower most rings below the center-line of the wrist pin, down on the long extended skirt, in order to ensure that the piston remains square in the bore. Diesel engines need to last a long time in service and this reduces bore wear. A race engine will be torn down after every race and many of its components will be renewed. This means that race pistons have the skirt cut away as far as possible (twenty five percent of a diesel piston) to reduce weight and will have perhaps only three rings. As long as it lasts the race, that is good enough.

- PISTONS; Exotics ;


- - Magnesium pistons have been tried and they can be made to work. They are even lighter than aluminum but magnesium is not as strong. If they worked, we'd be using them. Magnesium engine blocks have been tried but they seemed to be unable to hold their tolerances well. Magnesium does work well in applications where you have a lot of metal but not much stress, such as in manifolds, valve covers.



- Piston; Size; Maximum Size;

- - The maximum cylinder size is the size of a Rolls-Royce Merlin (Allinson), a 26 liter engine. The cylinder size is limited by the strength of the piston. After this point is reached, power-to-weight starts to decrease. This ratio is crucial in aircraft and in race cars. The piston is like a bridge with a single pillar (the connecting rod). If the size of the bridge is to increase either the existing bridge material needs to be thickened or a new, stronger material needs to be found. The width of the connecting rod could be increased but this also increases weight. The mass of the piston+connecting rod increases at cube of the size of the volume while the strength of the existing material increases only at the square (the cross-sectional area). The Rolls-Royce Griffon at 36 liters was larger than the Merlin but there was not a proportional increase in power. That would be fine in marine applications (there were Griffon powered launches) but not in aircraft or race cars. The later development of radial engines used a larger number of cylinders of a Merlin size, rather than larger cylinders.

- - Thus, you can see that the maximum engine size with respect to power-to-weight (ie for our purposes) is the cylinder size of a 26 liter V12 which is (26/12) 2.16 liters. That would be for a V8 or a V12. Thus a V12 would be a larger engine. The same size as a Merlin, in fact.

- - The way to overcome this limitation is to increase the strength of the piston and decrease the weight. This will give you are larger piston size, and a larger cylinder. #




+ PORSCHE ; Family Tomb ; Porsche Family Tomb at Zell-am-See



At Talledega raceway in 1972 the Porsche factory team were attempting to set the world closed course record for top speed using the newly obselete Porsche 917/30 Can-Am car. Even though the factory had fitted intercoolers (the only 917 ever to have them) the engine kept over-heating or blowing and Mark Donohue the driver kept putting into the pits for repairs. The Porsche engineers asked Donohue if the car was developing enough power and Donohue replied:

» It will never have enough power until I can spin the wheels at the end of the straightaway in top gear. «

Porsche 917



- PORSCHE ; SINGER ; Link - Singer Vehicle Design - Original 1970s Porsche 911 replica/rebuilds.





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Q - Quelle


Steve McQueen ;





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R - Richard


+ Race ; Train versus Boat versus Plane race between Ely and Kings Lynn, England ;


+ Radar: Germany, Switzerland, France, England, Italy, Benelux.

Radar Warning AN/APR indicator readout


+ Ring Brothers ;

2015-AUG: Ring Brothers Wikipedia - Link - Ring Brothers Automotive Constructors automotive constructors have built a De Tomaso Pantera Wikipedia - De Tomaso Pantera Link - Ring Brothers De Tomaso Pantera project Adrnlin Link - Road and Track on Ring Brothers De Tomaso Pantera project Adrnln Link - Jalopnik on Ring Brothers De Tomaso Pantera project. Ring Brothers build cars which are highly modified to the point where there is little left of the original car. The use a lot of carbon fiber and milled aluminum. They have an outstanding ability to actually design and innovate when it comes to car interiors and external fittings. In some instances there is not a single component of the original car left. Serious modifications are undertaken such as the replacement of the rear axle with an custom independent suspension.
      The De Tomaso Pantera suffered from the same problem which affects all second-division makers of sports cars in that they do not have enough capital to produce their own engines, which means they have to buy-in engines from one of the major manufacturers, because the other sports car manufacturers (Ferrari, Maserati, Aston Martin) are not going to sell them theirs. Montiverdi used to use Chrysler engines, so did Jensen. Bizzarini and Iso Grifo used to use Chevrolet engines. TVR used Rover/Buick. McLaren used BMW. Pagani used Mercedes-Benz. De Tomaso chose Ford engines and the Panteras were fitted with the Cleveland block, displacement 351ci (5.7 liters). Ford sold the Pantera through its dealership network. However the miserable build quality from De Tomaso meant that the relationship ended. The advantage of the Pantera design was that not only could the engine bay accept Detroit small-black engines but was large enough to accept big-block engines. This meant that a Pantera could be used as the base for a road-going Can-Am Wikipedia - car. While still maintaining a good spread of torque on the power-band, a 500ci big-block engine will give 500HP. A 500ci big-block fitted with supercharger will give 1000HP. The Can-Am sports cars were fitted with Detroit big-blocks with the exception of the Porsche 917 which was fitted with the factory Porsche engine. Car builders who obtained Panteras could fit them with big-blocks and supercharged big-blocks giving up to 1000HP. In the early 1980s I remember seeing one Pantera owned by an L.A. Ford dealer which had been rebuilt with , among other things, chrome-moly 4130 suspension, gas struts, and Ford 427 SOHC Wikipedia - twin-turbocharged motor giving around 1000HP. Being a Ford dealer he was able to obtain a rare 427 SOHC engine for the job. Those engines were difficult to obtain even then. Details of road-going performance are understandably sketchy, but several of the blown big-block Panteras managed to cover 200 miles of California in an hour on Interstate 101 or Interstate 5.
      The Pantera built by the Ring Brothers is likely the best Pantera ever built. If they had come like this from the factory then De Tomaso would still be in business now. The Ring Brothers have re-designed every aspect of the car. The bodywork is now carbon fiber with significant and highly beneficial alterations to bodyline and styling. The interior and exterior fittings are now milled aluminum. The attention to detail is unparalleled. It is subtlety which divides ordinary designers from the best designers and it is subtle changes in styling line and subtle changes in the curve of a panel which turn a good outline into a great one. This is what this Pantera has.
      Ring Brothers have fitted a Chevrolet LS7 engine Wikipedia - , which is a significant departure. One of the problems with obtaining engines is that you can only obtain from what is available. Personally, I would have wanted to fit a Ford engine but I have to declare an interest in that I am a Ford guy, through and through and always have been since I was a boy. This leaves the choice of :

- (1) A rebuilt 351ci Cleveland Wikipedia - small-block engine. No longer manufactured, even by Ford Australia, which means that you would have to rebuild a block recovered from another car.

- (2) One of the aftermarket cast aluminum 351ci Cleveland engines. Significantly better than the original and can be opened up to 427ci.

- (3) One of the Ford big-blocks, which in a performance application would be either:

- - (a) The Ford FE seriesWikipedia - (Shelby Cobra, Ford GT40, several performance Mustangs), the best example of the Ford FE series being the Ford FE SOHC. Last available new in the 1960s but presently available in cast aluminum form from a number of makers - See Above.

- - (b) The Ford 385 series Wikipedia - (BOSS 429 Mustang, several NASCAR race cars). Still available until recently as the Ford 460. Cast aluminum aftermarket blocks from C&C motorsports / Jon Kaase. The blocks are lighter and stronger than original.







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S - Siegfried



Shelby Cobra chassis plate Powered by Ford
Shelby Cobra chassis plate





Shelby Cobra logo applied to team shirts


Carroll Smith and Carroll Shelby


1967 Le Mans 24 Hours, Carroll Smith (left) with Carroll Shelby (right)


Carroll Shelby, in addition to being a WWII bomber pilot, a race driver, an engineer and team manager was an accomplished big game hunter and chef-de-cuisine.




+ Shelby COBRA ;

Shelby Cobra logo applied to team shirts


CS logo Carroll Shelby logo with Shelby


- Testing Shelby Cobra Daytona coupe on the M1 Motorway, England

- Shelby Cobra 427 in Gumball Rally (1976)

- Shelby Cobra 427 camera car in Grand Prix (1966)

- Link - Kirkham Motorsports



- COBRA ; Cobra-Ferrari Wars ; ;

- - The open 289 Cobras with their transverse leaf suspensions had the advantage of powerful torqey engines but their older cruder design of suspension (transverse leaf, like the Corvette Stingray 1958+) meant that they were harder on their tires which meant that later in the race their lap times would fall off.


CS logo Carroll Shelby logo


Shelby Cobra 427: Steve McQueen driving at Riverside
Steve McQueen driving a Shelby Cobra 427 at Riverside International Raceway Wikipedia - Riverside International Raceway

Carroll Shelby and Steve McQueen converse in front of a Shelby Cobra 289
Carroll Shelby and Steve McQueen converse in front of a Shelby Cobra 289






Daytona: Carroll Shelby gives the thumbs up to the Shelby Cobra Daytona being tested
Debut at Daytona: Carroll Shelby gives the thumbs up to the Shelby Cobra Daytona Coupe


Shelby Cobra Daytona coupe at Sebring 1964
Shelby Cobra Daytona coupe at Sebring 1964



+ Shelby : Shelby Cobra 427 Super-Snake

- Shelby Cobra 427 Super-Snake ; Three manufactured, with Rotrax superchargers and C6 transmissions. Link - Road and Track - Last Shelby Cobra 427 Super-Snake sells for USD51m. Carroll Shelby owned one himself for years.



- Testing on the M1 Motorway, England

- Gumball Rally (1976)

- Grand Prix (1966)

- Link - Kirkham Motorsports

















- Snap-On Wikipedia - Snap-On Tool corporation


Snap-On tools
Tool makers to the Gods.



- Speedtrap iPhone APP Link - FoxNews on Speedtrap iPhone APP Link - Iphone

- Speedtraps in the US Link - Speedtrap

- Speedtraps Worldwide Link - njection



+ SUPERCHARGER (blower ; compressor )


- Kenne Bell

- -


- Lysholm


- Roots


- Whipple


- Weiand

- -

- -



+ STARTER ; Self-Starter ;

- Racecar: Objective: Minimum weight. Characteristics: Preferably no starter at all. The car can be push-started or started with the pit lane compressed air starter. Not only are starter motors heavy but the mountings and drive unit are heavy and their mountings make the engine block heavier. Furthermore, they must be driven by a heavy lead-acid battery or a heavy compressed air cylinder. The main problem in designing a starter motor for a race car is that starter motors requires extensive reduction gearing. This is achieved by placing gear teeth around the outside of the flywheel which are engaged by a very small cog on the starter motor output shaft. The problem with this design is that race engines do not have flywheels. This means that reduction gearing has to be fitted inside the starter motor itself, which is heavy and expensive in engineering terms.

If you run a magneto rather than a distributor, you do not need a battery to make a spark, because the magneto is a generator. Magnetos are a great benefit on vintage cars because you can disregard battery condition. As long as you can start the car somehow, it will run.#

- Road-going passenger car: Usually a series-wound electric starter motor driven off a 12v lead acid battery.

- In cold wet winters a really big battery or two batteries are an advantage in starting. In the High North, some cars are fitted with connectors which fit the central heating pipes of the house so that the engine can be heated in a morning before starting. Some cars have electric heaters driven from the domestic mains. As a battlefield expedient, run out an automotive inspection light or equivalent and place it under the hood. The bulb provides enough heat to keep the engine from freezing.




- Stress Relief Engineering




- Whenever you compress a gas, it heats up. In a gasoline engine there is maximum temperature in the cylinder which you can reach during the compression stroke, whereafter the gasoline/air mixture will spontaneously combust, regardless of whether the sparkplug has arced or not. The gaseous mixture will reach its combustion temperature all at once, each and every molecule. The results are far more like an explosion than controlled burning. The spark plug ignites a point in the compressed gaseous mixture, and a flame front spreads out from that fireball, as the flame-front successively ignites more of the gas, like an expanding sphere. This provides a gentle increase in pressure that gives a 'push' to the piston. The sudden detonation of spontaneous combustion just stresses the piston, cylinder, head and valves with a sudden pressure-wave, as if a small charge of C4 has been set-off. There is little power generation and within a few seconds there may well be a lot of damage. This means that the compression reached in the compression stroke is limited to around 12 to 1. After this, the mixture would detonate rather than wait to be ignited by the spark-plug.
   When you add a compressor of some kind, a Roots compressor or a turbo-charger, you are compressing the incoming air further. The cylinder does not care where the gas mixture was compressed: Once it reaches 12 to 1 compression the mixture will detonate prematurely. If you had a 3 to 1 compression in the compressor then a 12 to 1 compression in the cylinder, then that is 15 to 1 compression. Way too much for a gasoline engine. You have to reduce the compression ratio in the cylinder until the overall compression back at 12 to 1. This is standard practice in supercharged engines.
   There is one way of getting around this: If you cool the incoming air in a radiator after it has been through the compressor. This will return the temperature of the incoming compressed air to that of room temperature. You can now compress the gaseous mixture by a full 12 to 1 in the cylinder. This gives you the advantage of a high compression in the cylinder (more power) and with a lot more of the gaseous gasoline/air mixture coming through to the cylinder thanks to the compressor. A much bigger bang: That's a supercharged engine. A normally aspirated 500ci engine will give you five hundred honest horsepower, without robbing Peter to pay Paul on the powerband. A 500ci engine supercharged will give you 1000HP, again without robbing Peter to pay Paul on the powerband. But it's not quite as simple as that.
   When the compressor you choose is a turbo-charger, there is usually enough space under the hood to route in the tubing to a radiator (intercooler) at the front of the car which will take the oncoming flow of cool air and reduce the temperature of the compressed air which is en route to the engine. When the compressor you choose is the classic Roots blower, there is considerable difficulty in doing this to the point where it is almost impossible. The Roots blower is usually mounted in the 'V' of the 'V' engine with a belt drive off the crankshaft. The 1930s blower Bentleys, with, by modern standards, a long chassis, could mount the Roots blower directly off the crankshaft, in front of the engine. The compressed air was then manifolded into a tube and routed back toward the top of the engine. If they had had the technology to create intercoolers at that time, then they would have done. This was achieved by WWII. Modern cars are unable to mount the mount the Roots blower forward of the crankshaft in this manner. There is not enough space and the water radiator is there. This creates a design headache.
   Typically, only Detroit V8s mounted a Roots blower. Nearly all road-going factory production cars and race-track cars were turbocharged. The road-going factory production cars because the turbo-charger set-up will fit in the spare space within the engine bay. In race-track cars, which ran at full-output for long periods, the only way of eliminating the heat from the compressed intake charge was with an intercooler. And the only way of rigging an intercooler in the space available was by using a turbo-charger.
   The Detroit V8s which mounted a Roots blower were almost universally drag-racing cars, either on the street or on the dragstrip. In drag racing on the street, the engine will just move the car to the location of the race, remaining at a reasonable temperature while it does so, then, preferably after being shut down for a while, will run the drag-race, which is over only one quarter mile, one thousand three hundred and fifty feet. While the motor will become hot during the run, it should remaing within acceptable limits. In track-only drag-racing at the strip, the engine is only started before the run and will still be relatively cool when it starts its run. This means that while doubling the horsepower of the engine with Roots-type blower looks good on paper, in reality, the heat build up of continuous running up means that the power you saw on the test bench will only be available until the engine overheats. Thereafter you will get reduced power, if you have one of these modern black boxes which control ignition timing and throttle position, or if you are old-style, then your engine will detonate, and you will have to throttle back or pull over. Supercharged V8s in Cigarette boats were standard but cooling on boat engines is provided by the unlimited supply of room-temperature water just outside the boat. Those lucky marine engineers never have to give a moment's thought to cooling.
   The nature of this particular design headache was reduced in the 1980s when a new kind of lobe compressor was developed which was similar to the classic Roots design but with one rotor lobed in a helical pattern and the other matching rotor bladed in a helical pattern. The new helical rotor blower had several advantages, including an increase in efficiency. These blowers were smaller for the same quantity of air flow which meant there was more space in a V-engine mounting. This meant that the actual blower would fit under the hood, which the Roots blowers never did, and further more, with some clever design in the manifold under the blower, you could add a water intercooler. This would remove some of the heat from the incoming compressed air and take it away to the front of the car. The maximum continuous power output of the blower equipped engine could now be increased to the maximum rating achieved on the test bench. At last.
   The smaller blower and the water intercooler meant that a blown small block would just about fit under the hood of a production car. The result was factory produced blown Detroit muscle cars for the first time in history. Cars like the 2013 Shelby Mustang GT500, the most powerful production V8 ever: A 200mph factory turn-key car with a warranty. This was the stuff of dreams even in the Sixties. It was almost inconceivable back then.
   Furthermore the car was a small-block, which meant that the handling of the car was greatly superior to the cast iron big-block cars, with their heavy under-steer in factory trim. Computer control of the engine meant that if the intake charge did become too hot, the ignition timing and throttle setting could be reduced by the computer in order to avoid engine damage. It is doubtful the factory would have built supercharged cars in the days before black-box control because it would mean that the engine could be damaged and returned under warranty. This is a fast way to go bust for an automobile manufacturer (see NSU Wikipedia - ).
   Running a drag car on the street you could fit an intercooler after the blower which accepts a feed from a liquid carbon dioxide tank and is controlled by a thermostat measuring actual intake air temperature. Whenever you need to run the engine in anger, you can turn on the carbon-dioxide system and the control box will bring the temperature of the incoming air to any temperature you like, including below ambient temperature. The air must not cool below freezing otherwise this will cause icing in the manifold and the chips of ice will fall off and jam behind an intake valve causing catastrophic damage when the piston comes up to find the intake valve not in its seat. Liquid gas cooling is usually banned in NHRA competition but I have seen ice-water intercoolers used on turbo-charged set-ups during the 1960s. In drag racing, the standard air-to-air intercooler used in the intake charge is of little use because the drag car has to develop full power while the car is stationary. The run brings air through the intercoolers but by the time it reaches any speed the run is over and the engine shut down. Ice water or liquid gas intercoolers work at any speed and would be ideal in a road legal drag car. #


- Roots type lobe blowers and their antecedents have been confined to drag-racing because of the heat build up. Turbo-charger set-ups have been used almost exclusively in racing or in road-going performance cars partly because of the ability of the system to mount intercoolers but partly because a turbocharger systems will fit inside a much smaller space. When car builders have built a road car which uses a Roots type blower to double the horsepower of the V8, you hear descriptions of the driver experience of the car such as 'lumbering' which is more than likely because the lobes of the blower act like a flywheel. When the throttle is closed in order to shift gears, the inertia in the blower keeps the engine moving, causing it to spin down more slowly and delaying the gear change. In drag cars, the transmissions use planetary gearboxes (such as in passenger car torque converter Wikipedia - gearboxes, or the Lenco Wikipedia - drag racing gearbox) which can be shifted while transmitting power, so the engine never needs to spin down and the flywheel effect of the blower is never noticed. Occasional Can-Am type road-going cars have been built with lobe type V8s. I have seen GT40 Wikipedia - replicas and De Tomaso Pantera Wikipedia - , both of which will accept a big-block in their engine bay. Personally I would fit a sprag type over-run clutch at the crankshaft end of the drive to the blower so that the engine could spin down at normal speed as soon as the throttle was shut, and the lobes of the blower could spin onwards under inertia. This would make the engine feel a lot more lively, rather than shifting gears like a truck where the forces of inertia in the engine flywheel and in the gearbox shafts are high.


- Supercharger: Bentley; Bond, James;

- - From Casino Royale (1953)

   On straight stretches the Amherst Villiers supercharger dug spurs into the Bentley's twenty-five horses and the engine sent a high-pitched scream of pain into the night. Then the revolutions mounted until he was past 110 and on to the 120 mph mark on the speedometer.
   He knew he must be gaining fast. Loaded as she was the Citro‰n could hardly better eighty even on this road. On an impulse he slowed down to seventy, turned on his fog-lights, and dowsed the twin Marchals. Sure enough, without the blinding curtain of his own lights, he could see the glow of another car a mile or two down the coasts
   He felt under the dashboard and from a concealed holster took out a long-barrelled Colt Army Special .45, and laid it on the seat beside him. With this, if he was lucky with the surface of the road, he could hope to get their tyres or their petrol tank at anything up to a hundred yards.
   Then he switched on the big lights again and screamed off in pursuit.



- Track(flat) - Track(rough) - Track(bumpy) - Road(closed) - Road(open)

- - A suspension on a racing car which is set for a closed road racecourse will be relatively soft. However, for pure road driving, the suspension must be altered again so that you can feel the response of the car and know whereabouts in its cornering performance envelope you are at. You must be able to feel the onset of departure and be able to alter the attitude of the car to bring it away from the onset of departure while it is being cornered. If you come off on the track you will lose the race. If you come off during road driving the car will be destroyed and you may lose your life.



- Race-track: Race-tracks have a flat surface free from pot-holes free from camber. This means that the suspension can be fitted with hard springs in order to prevent the car body from rolling and gain the maximum grip in the corners. A hard suspension is less able to allow the wheels to follow the undulations on an uneven surface which means that the wheel will start to lose traction on an uneven or pot-holed track or road. The Mercedes-Benz CLR had to run soft rear springs at Indianapolis # because the track surface was so poor. The softer rear springs allowed the rear tires to stay on the road surface and maintain traction rather than skipping. Race-tracks do not have kerbstones or pot-holes which means that the wheels on a racing car can be light and fragile. The tires or tire tread can be as thin as possible because there is little danger of puncture from road debris. On the road, wheels designed for race-tracks would come back dimpled from being driven through pot-holes. The race tires would suffer frequent punctures because of the road debris and the potholes.

- On a short race-track there will be a lot of corners and the straights will be short. This means that a car which is optimised for cornering (light in weight with plenty of downforce) and good throttle response (not a turbo) will give best performance. On a long racetrack (like Le Mans) the straights will be long and corners infrequent. The car will spend long periods with wide-open-throttle and reach high speeds. A powerful car (large engine means it will be heavier) with good drag coefficient (low downforce) will give best performance.

Thick - resistant to damage by potholes and kerbstones
Thin - easily damaged by potholes and kerbstones
Thick - resistant to damage by potholes and kerbstones
Thin - easily damaged by potholes and kerbstones
Tougher carcass means less flexible and less footprint on the road surface
Flexible to put as much rubber on footprint on the road surface
Thick and treaded - requires rain ducting
Slick - maximum rubber on the surface - maximum surface strength
Harder compounds to resist wear
Soft or very soft - Sticky for grip but wear out quickly
Higher - must clear kerbs, ramps
Low - will ground occasionally even on track
Softer with longer travel
Harder with less travel
Typically spur gear box with synchro
Typically spur gearbox with dog teeth engagement



Table of optimisation for acceleration versus optimisation for cornering


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ß - SCHule





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T - Theodor





- The connecting rod bearings and spark plugs are changed after every run. The forged aluminum connecting rods and the forged 4340 crankshaft are changed every twenty runs (five miles). Nitromethane is four times as voluminous as pump gasoline and the fuel pump needs to pump a hundred gallons a minute. At 8000rpm, it takes nearly 1000HP just to drive the blower.



- Top Fuel: Digital 70mm from Phantom Research


- Ahhh..... listen ..... and know the sound of ... Freedom

- - Recording race engines or anything stupendously loud is not easy. There is some interesting material on the documentary which details the making of Two Lane Blacktop (1971). The waveform starts to clip and so you just do not record the sound you are trying to record. Clipped waveforms are great if you are playing with Motorhead, but not if you are trying to reproduce the sound of V8s. With the waveform clipping on playback you tend to hear the engine as if dried peas are being dropped into an empty cookie tin whereas if you were there you would hear all the deep bass bellow.

The above soundtrack captures the sound of a Top Fuel Hemi faithfully.

I suppose that the primeval forests once echoed to the last bellows of the dinosaurs, as well...





- GM TH400 Wikipedia - ;








- #







A Ä B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Ö P Q R S ß T U Ü V W X Y Z



U - Ulrich





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Ü - Übel





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V - Viktor


+ V8

Animation of a V8 engine with a 90 degree crank
In the Beginning was the Number
And the Number was Eight
In the Beginning was the Configuration
And the Configuration was 'V'.



- VALVE ; ACTUATION ; Desmodromic ;

- - Invented and patented by Ducati #







W - Willhelm





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Y - Ypsilon





A Ä B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Ö P Q R S ß T U Ü V W X Y Z



Z - Zeppelin





A Ä B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Ö P Q R S ß T U Ü V W X Y Z




USAF test chart resolution

Telefunken test card

Television test card BBC circa 1997



© copyright copyright ©



- License plates





- - Comprehensive photograph collection of the GT40 project in the workshop and at the track.



















© copyright copyright ©



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